YouSigma- the web’s most extensive resource for information

ಭಗವದ್ಗೀತೆ

Sri Madh Bhagawath Gita

Based on Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya discourses (click the sloka to hear Kannada and English Discourse)

Go to Home Page

Tell Your Friend About This Website!

ಭಗವದ್ಗೀತಾ

ಅಧ್ಯಾಯ ಒಂದು

ಧೃತರಾಷ್ಟ್ರ ಉವಾಚ

ಧರ್ಮಕ್ಷೇತ್ರೇ ಕುರುಕ್ಷೇತ್ರೇ ಸಮವೇತಾ ಯುಯುತ್ಸವಃ

ಮಾಮಕಾಃ ಪಾಂಡವಾಶ್ಚೈವ ಕಿಮಕುರ್ವತ ಸಂಜಯ

Introduction and Sloka 1.1 Audio (Kannada - by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

dhṛtarāṣṭra uvāca |

dharmakṣetre kurukṣetre samavetā yuyutsavaḥ |

māmakāḥ pāṃḍavāścaiva kimakurvata saṃjaya ||1||

Introduction English (Based on Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharaya's Discourse)

Sloka 1.1 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:01

Gist of the sloka:

Emperor Dhitrarastra said: Sanjaya, In the place where Dharma resides, also known as Kurukshetra, my people and Pandavas have assembled for the war. Tell me what’s is happening at that place?

Explanation:

It is exceedingly appropriate that the question starts at the very beginning of this epic poem. We are ‘literally’ as blind as the blind Emperor Dhitrarastra. We are not even aware of what we don’t know. In this sense, the question is as relevant to us as much as it is to the Emperor.

Sanjaya was at the palace whereas the war was happening in Kurukshetra. Sanjaya, who through the grace of Lord Veda Vyasa, had obtained a temporary boon [for the duration of war] to be able to view, hear and feel [the inner thoughts of the people] at the distant happenings at the war. He was giving a running commentary of the distant happening to the King.

The place where the war was being fought, was the same place where Lord Parashurama had constructed 5 lakes [sarovaras] during his 22 rounds of eliminating the wicked rulers of the world. The place due His holiness was considered the very place where Dharma [righteousness] existed and entire area was considered holy.

The 5 lakes continue to exists even today while most of the battlefield is now overrun by constructions. Some parts of battlefield still exist and can be visited. Performance of daana [offerings/donation] at this place is considered sacred and pious.

Emperor Kuru the ancestor of Kauravas and Pandavas in turn had performed various sacrifices at the place and in turn was also called as Kuru-shetra. The armies had both agreed to meet for the battle at such a holy place [battlefield] to fight the war on the principles of righteousness.

Our mind itself is one such battlefield. With the battle going on at all times between our good and evil thoughts. Sometimes it is exceedingly confusing to determine what is right and what is not. In a way Mahabharatha happens in our minds at all times.

We therefore need guidance to make sure we always side with the righteousness and hence the Lord guidance through Gita.

If we analyze the words of the blind Emperor, we realize that even though he was the Emperor for both Pandavas and Kauravas, he shows his inherent weakness for his sons Kauravas when he asks Sanjaya about “my people and Pandavas”. As a ruler of the kingdom, he is expected to treat all his subjects equally.

--

ಸಂಜಯ ಉವಾಚ

ದೃಷ್ಟ್ವಾತು ಪಾಂಡವಾನೀಕಂ ವ್ಯೂಢಂ ದುರ್ಯೋಧನಸ್ತದಾ

ಆಚಾರ್ಯಮುಪಸಂಗಮ್ಯ ರಾಜಾ ವಚನಮಬ್ರವೀತ್

Sloka 1.2 Audio (Kannada - by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

saṃjaya uvāca |

dṛṣṭvātu pāṃḍavānīkaṃ vyūḍhaṃ duryodhanastadā|

ācāryamupasaṃgamya rājā vacanamabravīt ||2||

Sloka 1.2 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:02

Gist of the sloka:

Sanjaya said: King Duryodhana in anticipation of the beginning of the battle, viewing the Pandavas assembled army, moved towards his Acharya and spoke as follows:

Explanation:

Before getting into further analysis, it’s important to first understand the armed formations.

There were total of 18 Akshohinis [~almost like Army Battalion] in the Mahabharatha battle. Of which 11 of them belonged to Kauravas and 7 to Pandavas. Akshohinis indicate very large diverse armed formations. The basic unit/divisions of the army is as follows:

One Pathi – 1 Elephant [1 Mahout + 1 fighter], 1 Chariot [2 to protect the wheels, 1 to supply arrows and 1 to fight], 3 Horse fighters plus 5 infantry soldiers.

Sena Mukha – 3 Pathi’s

Gulma – 3 Sena Mukha’s

Guna – 3 Gulma’s

Vahini – 3 Guna’s

Pruthana – 3 Vahini’s

Chamu – 3 Pruthana’s

Anikeshani – 3 Chamu’s

Akshohini – 10 Anikeshani [21,870 Elephant’s, 21,879; Chariot’s, 65,610 Horse’s; 1,09,350 Infantry soldiers].

Please note the significance of the numbers [akshouhini]: Elephants. 2+1+8+7+0=18, Horses 6+5+6+1+0=18, Infantry 1+0+9+3+5+0=18.

Both the armies never assembled their entire strength in the battlefield on day 1. Rather they brought forth only a small percentage of the armies and stood them in formulations [vyuha]. These vyuha would be for defensive or offensive battlefield formulations as per the orders of the battlefield commanders for that given day.

Duryodhana only saw a 10% of one Akshohini of the Pandavas. This was equivalent of 2,187 Elephants, 2,187 Chariots, 6,561 Horses, 10,935 soldiers. A very small percentage of the total strength of Pandavas. More importantly, he noticed that the formation was well organized by determined and disciplined army of Pandavas.

This shook Duryodhana and amplified his anxiety and gave raise to his fears. This was the first mental shock to Duryodhana.

He then proceeds towards his Acharya [Guru/guide] Dronacharya. Dronacharya was the Guru, who taught most of the warriors in the battlefield, including Pandavas and Kauravas.

Rather than showing his obedience and respectfulness to the Dronacharya, Duryodhana talks to him in a tone showing his haughtiness and arrogance, clearly demonstrating his position as a King [not as his disciple] and his inner doubts about his Guru.

Duryodhana had all along come to the battlefield with a belief in his strength [11 Akshohinis], belief in the warriors he had and with a strong expectation that he would definitely win and obtain the kingdom wiping out Pandavas.

We can clearly see the psychological impact the small armed formation of the Pandavas had on Duryodhana’s mind. Just looking at them, he mentally lost the first battle and beginning to have serious doubts about his winnability. His severe anxiety about the situation developed, making him show his arrogance even in front of his Guru and he started developing psychological fears. This is more clearly brought out in the next slokas.

It is true for most of us also. We first loose the battle in our minds even before the actual event. The loss of our mental belief in ourselves reflects in the actual action. It is therefore important we win our mental battle first before anything. Be it everyday issues or battling diseases.

--

 ಪಶ್ಯೈತಾಂ ಪಾಂಡುಪುತ್ರಾಣಾಮಾಚಾರ್ಯ ಮಹತೀಂ ಚಮೂಮ್

ವ್ಯೂಢಾಂ ದ್ರುಪದಪುತ್ರೇಣ ತವ ಶಿಷ್ಯೇಣ ಧೀಮತಾ

Sloka 1.3-to-1.9 (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

paśyaitāṃ pāṃḍuputrāṇāmācārya mahatīṃ camūm|

vyūḍhāṃ drupadaputreṇa tava śiṣyeṇa dhīmatā ||3||

Sloka 1.3 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:03

Gist of the sloka:

O Pandavas Acharya, take a look at the large formation of Pandavas army, who are being commanded by your disciple, the son of Dhrupada

Explanation:

The Commander of the Kauravas was Bheeshmacharya. Rather than approaching the commander with his concerns Duryodhana approaches Dronacharya and speaks to him within the hearing of Bheeshmacharya and that too in a arrogant manner.

He first addresses Dronacharya [Who taught both the cousins Kauravas and Pandavas] as acharya of Pandavas. Indicating that he suspects his own teacher of probably siding with Pandavas and indicating he is watching his actions.

Secondly, he implies to his teacher, not to show any pride that the Pandavas have learnt their lessons in warfare and thereby showing their skill in the battlefield formations.

Third, he highlights that the commander of Pandavas as “son of King Dhrupada” (Dhristyadhyumna); who again was the disciple of Dronacharya.

Duryodhana is already in deep doubts and has anxiety about his actions and winnability, is even more troubled with increasing doubts about everyone around him.

Dronacharya and Drupada were both disciples under Rishi Bharadwaja. As such developed friendship with each other and remained so until they graduated. While Drupada went on to become the King, Drona after various trails remained a poor person but a Gynani.

Dronacharya son Ashwatthama, once asked him for milk as he had not yet tasted it. Dronacharya wife used to mix rice flour with water and used to offer it as milk to the young son. It so happened Ashwatthama once tasted real milk at his friend’s place and realized he was not been given real milk at his home. He demanded from his parents for the same.

Drona remembered his friend is now the King and thought he could ask for a gift of cow from him. He approached the King in open court and addressed the King as his old childhood friend. The King indicated to him that he was no longer his friend as they were now at two different levels in the society. They need to be of equal status if they need to be considered as friends.

Dronacharya then, insulted in the open court, went towards Kauravas kingdom and became their teacher. Once the teaching was complete, the disciples asked Dronacharya what he would take from them as offering from his disciples – guru dakshina [fee].

Dronacharya asked them to win King Dhrupada and bring him before him – as a prisoner. Pandavas were successful in doing so. Dronacharya then returned half of the kingdom to King and retained a half. Thereby making them equal. He then sought the friendship of the King as they were now equal.

The humiliated King performed various sacrifices and obtained a daughter [Draupadi] and son [Dhristyadhyumna]. Dhristyadhyumna had taken to vow to eliminate Dronacharya as Dronacharya had humiliated his father King Dhrupada. Draupadi in turn married the Pandavas; the very Pandavas who had initially subdued King Dhrupada on behalf of Dronacharya.

The King knowing Dronacharya was the best teacher, had his son Dhristyadhyumna trained under the very person Dronacharya.

These factors did not stop Dronacharya from teaching Dhristyadhyumna the best he could. The exemplary ways the people behaved separating their personal issues with the duties of Teacher/Disciple is alien now.

--

 ಅತ್ರ ಶೂರಾ ಮಹೇಷ್ವಾಸಾ ಭೀಮಾರ್ಜುನಸಮಾ ಯುಧಿ |

ಯುಯುಧಾನೋ ವಿರಾಟಶ್ಚ ದ್ರುಪದಶ್ಚ ಮಹಾರಥಃ ||

atra śūrā maheṣvāsā bhīmārjunasamā yudhi |

yuyudhāno virāṭaśca drupadaśca mahārathaḥ ||4||

Sloka 1.4 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:04

Gist of the sloka:

There are many great warriors here - Saatyaki, Virata, Dhrupada who are similar to Arjuna and Bheema.

Explanation:

It is typical to see everywhere we look the one aspect which we dread. It is psychology as mind is fully tuned and fears the worst, irrespective of present situation. Same was the case with Duryodhana.

For being a great warrior especially in the art of bow & arrow, one must have capability to use the great bow “Gandhiva”. There were only 3 such warriors who could use Gandhiva and they were Lord Krishna, Bheema and Arjuna.

Duryodhana, had great personal fears about Arjuna and Bheema. He knew they had great strength and were capable of defeating him without much trouble. These fears of them were so strong and embedded in his mind that he started comparing all other warriors in the Pandavas army as being equal to Arjuna or Bheema. As far as he was concerned, the battlefield was only filled with Arjuna/Bheema or their equivalents.

He then names Saatyaki, Dhrupada and Virata. All of them were expected to join forces with Duryodhana [as per Duryodhana] but did not. It is his deep-felt disappointment that these, who could have strengthened him, are now against him. A sense of deep loss makes him name them.

Balarama was Duryodhana’s teacher also. Saatyaki who was with Balarama, was expected to respect Balarama’s words - indicating he would not side with anyone in the war. Saatyaki rather choose to be with Pandavas against Balarama’s words. He being a great warrior was a significant asset to Pandavas.

Virata was the King under whose kingdom, his brother-in-law Keechaka resided, who was a law into himself. Bheema killed Keechaka and solved the problem for Virata. Virata was a King under the emperor Dhitrarastra. He was naturally expected to side with Duryodhana which did not happen.

Finally, Dhrupada was actually taken prisoner by Pandavas as per their Guru Dronacharya orders. It was in a way, a humiliation to the King. Rather, the King gave his daughter to Pandavas and strengthened his relationship with them and actually fought for them. He had his son take the commandership of Pandava army.

All the above 3 were in some sense expected to join Kauravas but rather joined the Pandavas. This affected Duryodhana – a sense of betrayal.

--

 ಧೃಷ್ಟಕೇತುಶ್ಚೇಕಿತಾನಃ ಕಾಶಿರಾಜಶ್ಚ ವೀರ್ಯವಾನ್

ಪುರುಜಿತ್ ಕುಂತಿಭೋಜಶ್ಚ ಶೈಬ್ಯಶ್ಚ ನರಪುಂಗವಃ

dhṛṣṭaketuścekitānaḥ kāśirājaśca vīryavān |

purujit kuṃtibhojaśca śaibyaśca narapuṃgavaḥ ||5||

Sloka 1.5 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:05

Gist of the sloka:

Other great warriors are Dhristaketu, Chetitana, King of Kashi apart from Purujit, Kunti bhoja and Shybya.

Explanation:

Duryodhana continues to mention out the warrior names of Pandavas; showing his increasing mental distress about the situation. We should not just think these are just additional 6 names but rather look beyond them to their historical context as to why they were felt to be important to Duryodhana.

Let’s us therefore analyze each of the names.

Dhristaketu: He was the son of Shishupala. Shishupala was killed by Lord Krishna during the great sacrifice. Dhristaketu was therefore naturally expected to side with Kauravas but he did the opposite – joining the forces where Lord Krishna was already present.

Chetitana: Was a Yadava warrior like Saatyaki. He too was expected to be neutral or join Kauravas given Balarama’s relationship as teacher to Duryodhana. Rather he too joined Pandavas like Saatyaki.

King of Kashi: There were two kings ruling the different areas around Kashi separated by the rivers Varana and Asi. Both of them were called King of Kashi.

One of them [who had given his daughter to Duryodhana] had been killed by Lord Krishna and another had given his daughter Kaali to Bheema. It was with this father-in-law of Bheema that Duryodhana was referring to. Duryodhana’s regret was that his own father-in-law no longer existed and could not support him.

He called all the above 3 as great warriors.

Purujit and Kuntibhoja were both belonging to Kingdom of Kunti. Kunti who was the mother of Pandavas was originally sister of Vasudeva the father of Lord Krishna. She was known as “pruthu”. She was adopted by King of Kunti as he had no issues. She was then known as “Kunthi” – d/o Kuntibhoja. Both of these warriors sided with Pandavas due to this connection. Duryodhana was regretful that it was this connection which made them side with Pandavas who would otherwise would have been assets to his army.

Shybya was King of Shibhi. His son helped Jayadratha [Brother in law of Duryodhana] during one his travels in “attempt” to kidnap Draupadi. Due to which Bheema killed Shibhi’s son and punished Jayadratha. Duryodhana was mystified as how King of Shibhi was still siding with Pandavas who had killed his son.

All these greatly affected the mental state of Duryodhana giving raise to his increasing anxiety and shaking his confidence.

The above clearly indicates how a person, once he loses his confidence starts going back to the past incidences and episodes while not recognizing his current strengths and need for stable mental equilibrium in order to win.

--

 ಯುಧಾಮನ್ಯುಶ್ಚ  ವಿಕ್ರಾಂತ  ಉತ್ತಮೌಜಾಶ್ಚ ವೀರ್ಯವಾನ್

ಸೌಭದ್ರೋ  ದ್ರೌಪದೇಯಾಶ್ಚ ಸರ್ವ ಏವ ಮಹಾರಥಾಃ

yudhāmanyuśca  vikrāṃta  uttamaujāśca vīryavān |

saubhadro  draupadeyāśca sarva eva mahārathāḥ ||6||

Sloka 1.6 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

Yudhamanjus is also great warrior; so is Uttamauja. Along with son of Subhadra [Abhimanyu] and yet to mature sons of Draupadi – all of them are great chariot warriors.

Explanation:

Yudhamanjus and Uttamauja are both sons of King Dhrupada. Duryodhana mentions that these two are great warriors who walk like a Ox, having determination, confidence and capability.

Subhadra’s son Abhimanyu along with yet to mature young sons of Draupadi are called great chariot warriors by Duryodhana.

Reflecting back, one can see that Duryodhana is seeing great warriors in Pandava army even though they are young and yet to mature. Such is his great fear and mental state, that he has feared the very war which he invoked.

The thing which is very clear from this, is the fact that once a person gets into fear mode, the mind starts playing tricks; making the situation even worse. Making one believe that he has seen a snake when it was, in fact a rope.

Even though Duryodhana had 11 and Pandavas 7 Akshohinis, he was seeing Pandavas had greater strength and more fearsome and capable warriors then he had. He mentioned 11 warrior leaders of Pandavas for their 7 Akshohinis.

This in turn made him fail his own army. Instead of motivating and increasing the positive spirit in his own army by highlighting their superior numbers and number of great warrior leaders on his side, he ended up praising his enemies and their leadership.

He also did it in front of his teacher rather than his commander Bheeshmacharya. Lastly, he mentions the enemy strength first demotivating even more, his own army. The fear had taken hold of his mental state making him unsure of how to proceed.

This is the exact state of a person who has turned away from Lord. They will always have fear in their heart/mind and to cover it up, starts speaking things which is both irrelevant and improper.

If a person starts speaking like Duryodhana with great fear and without respect, it only indicates their inherent fears in their mind and how far they are from Lord. They also lack confidence in their own abilities.

This is a lesson for everyone to believe, understand and follow the Lord and his words. For they only give real confidence and fearlessness.

--

 ಅಸ್ಮಾಕಂ ತು ವಿಶಿಷ್ಟಾ ಯೇ ತಾನ್ ನಿಬೋಧ ದ್ವಿಜೋತ್ತಮ

ನಾಯಕಾ ಮಮ ಸೈನ್ಯಸ್ಯ ಸಂಜ್ಞಾರ್ಥಂ ತಾನ್ ಬ್ರವೀಮಿ ತೇ

asmākaṃ tu viśiṣṭā ye tān nibodha dvijottama |

nāyakā mama sainyasya saṃjñārthaṃ tān bravīmi te ||7||

Sloka 1.7 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:07

Gist of the sloka:

O twice born [Dwija], please listen while I list our warriors and leaders. I will recite their names for you.

Explanation:

He addresses Dronacharya instead of his Commander Bheeshmacharya. Indicating a lack of confidence and also to show disrespect to his Commander.

It is expected that the King would first address his army, highlight its strengths, glorify the capabilities of their leaders all to motivate them just before heading into the battle. He does it, as a last resort after praising his enemy first.

Somewhere along Duryodhana demonstrates his lack of confidence/insecurity in his own army and their leaders.

--

ಭವಾನ್ ಭೀಷ್ಮಶ್ಚ ಕರ್ಣಶ್ಚ ಕೃಪಶ್ಚ ಸಮಿತಿಂಜಯಃ

ಅಶ್ವತ್ಥಾಮಾ ವಿಕರ್ಣಶ್ಚ ಸೌಮದತ್ತಿಸ್ತಥೈವ ಚ

bhavān bhīṣmaśca karṇaśca kṛpaśca samitiṃjayaḥ

aśvatthāmā vikarṇaśca saumadattistathaiva ca ||8||

Sloka 1.8 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:08

Gist of the sloka:

Worshipful you, Bheeshma and Karna; also, Krupa who are winners; Ashwathamma and Vikarna; also, Somadatta and Bhurishrava.

Explanation:

For a person who could recognize many of the Pandavas, Duryodhana fails to recognize those warriors who are on his side. Fear makes us do strange things including forgetfulness. Let us look at why he mentions those names.

Worshipful you is addressed to Dronacharya. Dronacharya was the teacher for both the armies, along with various other warriors and Duryodhana in a way doubted Dronacharya alignment with him.

Bheeshmacharya had blessed Yudhishthira the eldest of the Pandavas; before the start of the war as - “May you win the war”. He was known to pray to Lord every day for victory of Pandavas. Duryodhana was therefore suspicious of his own Great

grand uncle Bheeshmacharya.

Karna had vowed not to fight under Bheeshmacharya. Duryodhana who had sworn his friendship with Karna and had entered into the war based on Karna’s capabilities was now in midst of the same war without Karna fighting. It was like his main support being taken away.

Krupa was primarily Vedic scholar and had entered into the battle due his obligations of staying under the sponsorship of the Emperor.

Ashwatthama, son of Dronacharya was friend of Duryodhana but was known widely for his fickle mindedness. Though very capable was not dependable during the times of crisis.

Vikarna was one among the 99 younger brothers Duryodhana. He never mentions his capable 98 other brothers but picks on Vikarna who had tried to take advantage of situation during Draupadi de robing and tried to act as a virtuous person. Duryodhana therefore remembered him as a person who tried to take advantage of him, during crisis.

Somadatta was son of Bhurishrava. Bhurishrava was son of Bheeshma father’s [Shantanu] brother’s son. His presence was only due to the relationship and nothing more. Lacking any strong personal commitment, unlike other warriors.

It is very clear from the above that Duryodhana in his state of mind filled with fears and suspicion only recognized 7 warriors in his side consisting of 11 Akshohinis. Secondly, he mentions only those, against whom he had suspicion.

His lack of confidence, suspiciousness, belief that his enemies were stronger is very clearly indicated.

--

 ಅನ್ಯೇ ಚ ಬಹವಃ ಶೂರಾ ಮದರ್ಥೇ ತ್ಯಕ್ತಜೀವಿತಾಃ

ನಾನಾಶಸ್ತ್ರಪ್ರಹರಣಾಃ ಸರ್ವೇ ಯುದ್ಧವಿಶಾರದಾಃ

anye ca bahavaḥ śūrā madarthe tyaktajīvitāḥ |

nānāśastrapraharaṇāḥ sarve yuddhaviśāradāḥ ||9||

Sloka 1.9 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:09

Gist of the sloka:

There are many more great warriors; who have come to give up their life for me. They know the use of many kinds of weapons and experienced in many wars.

Explanation:

Showing his lack of confidence in various warriors already present in his own army [Jayadratha, Kritaverma, Shalya etc.,],

Duryodhana makes a general mention but with a tinge of sadness. He claims all of them are experienced warriors but who have come to die and not necessarily to win.

This shows his lack of belief that people who have assembled for him have come with some obligations and not necessarily with commitment to win. It looks like Duryodhana has already assumed that the war is lost, along with his defeat and death of his supporters.

Among those he left out:

Jayadratha was Duryodhana’s brother-in-law.

Shalya was Pandu’s 2nd wife Madri’s brother. He was a powerful warrior but was tricked by Duryodhana to join his forces. Shalya was wanting to support Pandavas all along.

Kritaverma was a Yadava warrior. He had differences with Lord Krishna and joined Kauravas leading the Lord’s army called Narayani. He later collaborated with Ashwatthama in butchering Draupadi’s minor sons.

Shalya and Kritaverma joined with Duryodhana with their own reasons and not for believing in Duryodhana.

--

 ಅಪರ್ಯಾಪ್ತಂ ತದಸ್ಮಾಕಂ ಬಲಂ ಭೀಷ್ಮಾಭಿರಕ್ಷಿತಮ್

ಪರ್ಯಾಪ್ತಂ ತ್ವಿದಮೇತೇಷಾಂ ಬಲಂ ಭೀಮಾಭಿರಕ್ಷಿತಮ್ ೧೦

Sloka 1.10-to1.12 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

aparyāptaṃ tadasmākaṃ balaṃ bhīṣmābhirakṣitam |

paryāptaṃ tvidameteṣāṃ balaṃ bhīmābhirakṣitam ||10||

Sloka 1.10 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:10

Gist of the sloka:

That army of ours [Kauravas] is protected by Pandavas sympathizer Bheeshmacharya. Whereas this army of Pandavas is well protected by Bheema.

Explanation:

Duryodhana speaks as though his army is at a distance whereas the enemy army of Pandavas are already nearer to him.

Secondly, his commander is Bheeshmacharya but he words the statement in a way indicating he distrusts Bheeshmacharya as he might hold sympathies towards Pandavas.

Finally, he should be talking about the enemy commander Dhristadhyumna, instead of addressing Bheema. Bheema was not the commander of Pandavas. It is only showing that his fear of Bheema is so great that he sees Bheema everywhere.

Fear had taken hold of Duryodhana that he sees Bheema everywhere, suspects his own commander and thinks enemy is near him and his own army elsewhere at a distance. He is not even addressing these to his own commander either.

Absolute fear paralyses a person making him unable to think and act properly. It creates suspicious shadows and further fear. That was the case with Duryodhana.

--

 ಅಯನೇಷು ಚ ಸರ್ವೇಷು ಯಥಾಭಾಗಮವಸ್ಥಿತಾಃ

ಭೀಷ್ಮಮೇವಾಭಿರಕ್ಷಂತು ಭವಂತಃ ಸರ್ವ ಏವ ಹಿ ೧೧

ayaneṣu ca sarveṣu yathābhāgamavasthitāḥ |

bhīṣmamevābhirakṣaṃtu bhavaṃtaḥ sarva eva hi ||11||

Sloka 1.11 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:11

Gist of the sloka:

Distributing yourselves at all appropriate corners, protect Bheeshmacharya at all times.

Explanation:

Bheeshmacharya had sacrificed his own inner thoughts of supporting Pandavas and under the obligation to the throne of the Kingdom, was willing to fight for Kauravas. He also undertook the onerous responsibility to fight against his own grandsons. He was also resolute to fight with integrity and with determination. All of this, against his own will and belief.

It would have certainly hurt such a brave and determined warrior to see his grandson addressing Dronacharya in a tone indicating he neither trusted nor believed the aged Bheeshmacharya would do the right thing and fight with his full strength.

Even at his advanced age of nearly 700 years, Bheeshmacharya was a powerful determined warrior which even Karna acknowledged. People refused to fight Bheeshmacharya as they all knew they would meet their death instantly. Such was the fearsomeness of Bheeshmacharya.

--

ತಸ್ಯ ಸಂಜನಯನ್ ಹರ್ಷಂ ಕುರುವೃದ್ಧಃ ಪಿತಾಮಹಃ

ಸಿಂಹನಾದಂ ವಿನದ್ಯೋಚ್ಚೈಃ ಶಂಖಂ ದಧ್ಮೌ ಪ್ರತಾಪವಾನ್ ೧೨

tasya saṃjanayan harṣaṃ kuruvṛddhaḥ pitāmahaḥ |

siṃhanādaṃ vinadyoccaiḥ śaṃkhaṃ dadhmau pratāpavān ||12||

Sloka 1.12 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:12

Gist of the sloka:

To cheer up Duryodhana, the grandfather Bheeshmacharya roared like a lion and then blew his conch.

Explanation:

As a commander, it’s his responsibility to motivate his army and followers. Bheeshmacharya being the commander of the Kauravas first roared like a lion and then blew his conch, indicating his readiness for war, alerting and motivating his troops and also to indicate to Duryodhana he was ready for the fight. This was also a signal to the enemy camp about their readiness.

Conch sounds hold the power to ward off evil spirits up to the point the sound is heard. That entire area is free of evil spirits. A battlefield contains such evil spirits and it is to drive away such spirits from the battlefield that conch is used.

Even in houses there is to be a practice of blowing the conch in all directions of the home to drive away evil spirits if any.

--

ತತಃ ಶಂಖಾಶ್ಚ ಭೇರ್ಯಶ್ಚ ಪಣವಾನಕಗೋಮುಖಾಃ

ಸಹಸೈವಾಭ್ಯಹನ್ಯಂತ ಸ ಶಬ್ದಸ್ತುಮುಲೋsಭವತ್ ೧೩

Sloka 1.13-and-1.14 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

tataḥ śaṃkhāśca bheryaśca paṇavānakagomukhāḥ

sahasaivābhyahanyaṃta sa śabdastumulosbhavat ||13||

Sloka 1.13 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:13

Gist of the sloka:

After which, the Kaurava army raised various sounds from Conch, Drums, bugles, horns, trumpets and various other war musical instruments.

Explanation:

Following Bheeshmacharya, the various parts of Kaurava army indicated their readiness by making sounds from the various war musical instruments. These sounds were intense and ear piercing.

It is to be noted that Duryodhana nor any of his 99 brothers used their conch to indicate their readiness.

Duryodhana as their leader never assembled or led his army to any kind of readiness. For a person who has disturbed mind state, can never lead himself or his followers to any kind of victory.

--

 ತತಃ ಶ್ವೇತೈರ್ಹಯೈರ್ಯುಕ್ತೇ ಮಹತಿ ಸೈಂದನೇ ಸ್ಥಿತೌ

ಮಾಧವಃ ಪಾಂಡವಶ್ಚೈವ ದಿವ್ಯೌ ಶಂಖೌ ಪ್ರದಧ್ಮತುಃ ೧೪

tataḥ śvetairhayairyukte mahati saiṃdane sthitau |

mādhavaḥ pāṃḍavaścaiva divyau śaṃkhau pradadhmatuḥ ||14||

Sloka 1.14 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:14

Gist of the sloka:

In response, Lord Krishna and Arjuna seated in their chariots pulled by white horses, blew their respective conch’s.

Explanation:

Once the Kauravas war noises reduced, Lord Krishna and Arjuna sitting in the biggest of the chariot pulled by 4 white horses, then blew their conch. First Lord Krishna and then Arjuna.

Lord is called “Ma-dhawa” here. “Ma” meaning Goddess Lakshmi and “Dhawa” meaning her husband. Madhawa meaning Lord of Goddess Lakshmi.

Ma also means Knowledge. Krishna being the Lord of all knowledge is known as “Madhawa”

Lord Krishna was born into the lineage of “Madhu”; hence was known as Madhwa.

The word “Mathru” is reflective of 7 great books – Rig veda, Yajur veda, Samaveda, Atharvaveda, Ramayana, Mahabharatha and all puranas. These books reflect the key knowledge of the entire sanathana dharma, all of which represents the supremacy of Lord Krishna. It is one another reason for calling him Madhawa.

Arjuna is called ‘Pandava’ here as a reflection of he being the youngest of the Pandu’s first wife Kunti’s children. The youngest usually being the recipient of all affections. He was also called “Partha”, ‘Kauntaeya’ etc., Arjuna being a friend of Lord Krishna also had increased presence of the Lord in him. He had another avatar as “Nara”.

Our body too is like a chariot. In such a chariot, there is the presence of the Lord driven by 4 vedas and with satvic [White] qualities/horses.

--

ಪಾಂಚಜನ್ಯಂ ಹೃಷೀಕೇಶೋ ದೇವದತ್ತಂ ಧನಂಜಯಃ

ಪೌಂಡ್ರಂ ದಧ್ಮೌ ಮಹಾಶಂಖಂ ಭೀಮಕರ್ಮಾ ವೃಕೋದರಃ ೧೫

Sloka 1.15-to-1.19 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

pāṃcajanyaṃ hṛṣīkeśo devadattaṃ dhanaṃjayaḥ |

pauṃḍraṃ dadhmau mahāśaṃkhaṃ bhīmakarmā vṛkodaraḥ ||15||

Sloka 1.15 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:15

Gist of the sloka:

In response, Lord Krishna blew his Panchajanya conch, Arjuna his Devadatta conch and Bheema blew his Proundra conch.

Explanation:

Lord Krishna indicated Pandavas readiness by blowing his conch Panchajanya. Krishna had killed a rakshasha/demon called Panchajanya who used to live in a sea within a conch. The rakshasha had killed Krishna’s teacher [Sandipini] son. His guru had asked return of his son from death as his fee for teaching Krishna.

Arjun while fighting against the rakshas in support of the heavenly beings had been rewarded with the conch called Devadatta.

Bheema [Vykhodara – one who has immense fire in his stomach which can burn the entire world] had a powerful conch called Poundra which he blew. It indicates Bheema’s prowess.

Each of the conch mentioned above were powerful and created earth shaking sounds; bringing fear into the hearts of their enemies.

Lord Krishna is addressed as “Hirishikesha” here. It means one who controls our senses. One who resides in our senses. One who is the master of our senses.

Another meaning also means rays of the Sun. Residing in those rays is the lord of senses, Lord Krishna.

--

 ಅನಂತವಿಜಯಂ ರಾಜಾ ಕುಂತೀಪುತ್ರೋ ಯುಧಿಷ್ಠಿರಃ

ನಕುಲಃ ಸಹದೇವಶ್ಚ ಸುಘೋಷಮಣಿಪುಷ್ಪಕೌ ೧೬

anaṃtavijayaṃ rājā kuṃtīputro yudhiṣṭhiraḥ |

nakulaḥ sahadevaśca sughoṣamaṇipuṣpakau ||16||

Sloka 1.16 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:16

Gist of the sloka:

Kunti’s son Yudhishthira then blew his conch Ananthavijaya, followed by Nakula & Sahadeva blowing their conch’s Sughosha and Manipushpa respectively.

Explanation:

After Bheema, his elder brother, son of Kunti and the King Yudhishthira blew his conch. His conch was named after Dharma [righteousness] and Vijaya [Victory]. Nakula & Sahadeva the sons of Pandu’s 2nd wife Madari then blew their conch’s called Sughosha and Manipushpa.

There is no further mention of any other King’s conch names which was sounded in this verse. Maybe, there could be a reason that we only remember these conch names/qualities every day in our lives.

--

ಕಾಶ್ಯಶ್ಚ ಪರಮೇಷ್ವಾಸಃ ಶಿಖಂಡೀ ಚ ಮಹಾರಥಃ

ಧೃಷ್ಟದ್ಯುಮ್ನೋ ವಿರಾಟಶ್ಚ ಸಾತ್ಯಕಿಶ್ಚಾಪರಾಜಿತಃ ೧೭

kāśyaśca parameṣvāsaḥ śikhaṃḍī ca mahārathaḥ |

dhṛṣṭadyumno virāṭaśca sātyakiścāparājitaḥ ||17||

Sloka 1.17 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:17

Gist of the sloka:

Great bowman King of Kashi, great charioteer Shikandi along with others like Dhristadhyumna, Virata and one who as never lost a battle - Saatyaki blew their conch.

Explanation:

Following Nakula and Sahadeva, senior bow expert King of Kashi, great charioteer Shikandi, Dhristadhyumna, Vitara and Saatyaki blew their conches.

Please notice that Shikandi is generally considered to be transgender. It was not the case, rather he was a renown warrior who was so named as he had tuft of hair which was tied behind his head. Shika is the tuft of hair and Handa [Andha in Hindi] means like ball – meaning one who has tied his tuft of hair as a ball behind his head.

Shikandi was born as a girl. He then transformed himself into a male after various incidents. Post the incident he had a fully formed male body.

Bheeshmacharya, refused to fight Shikandi as he had once had a female body.

--

 ದ್ರುಪದೋ ದ್ರೌಪದೇಯಾಶ್ಚ ಸರ್ವಶಃ ಪೃಥಿವೀಪತೇ

ಸೌಭದ್ರಶ್ಚ ಮಹಾಬಾಹುಃ ಶಂಖಾನ್ ದಧ್ಮುಃ ಪೃಥಕ್ ಪೃಥಕ್ ೧೮

drupado draupadeyāśca sarvaśaḥ pṛthivīpate |

saubhadraśca mahābāhuḥ śaṃkhān dadhmuḥ pṛthak pṛthak ||18||

Sloka 1.18 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:18

Gist of the sloka:

O King, the following then blew their conch one after another – Dhrupada, Sons of Draupadi and the great warrior Abhimanyu.

Explanation:

If one notices clearly, the conch was sounded off from Pandavas side in a systematic, hierarchical order of their positions. There was no confusions or noise being made for its own sake. The discipline showed how a small but well organized and determined army can have an impact on even numerical stronger but barely disciplined army. It also showed the high level of belief, determination and confidence that Pandavas had.

This was in strong contrast to the order and confusions in Kauravas’s army. There is another unique aspect. The number of people from Pandavas who sounded their conch was 18. Numerology as per Sanathana Dharma indicates 18 as the number for victory, Lord and final achievement. Mahabharatha is also known as Jaya. Ja means 8 and Ya means 1. Jaya =18 means Victory. This is as per Sanskrit alphabetical order.

In a strange coincidence, after the Pandavas 18 conch sounds the 18th para of Gita concludes.

--

 ಸ ಘೋಷೋ ಧಾರ್ತರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಾಣಾಂ ಹೃದಯಾನಿ ವ್ಯದಾರಯತ್

ನಭಶ್ಚ ಪೃಥಿವೀಂ ಚೈವ ತುಮುಲೋ ವ್ಯನುನಾದಯನ್ ೧೯

sa ghoṣo dhārtarāṣṭrāṇāṃ hṛdayāni vyadārayat |

nabhaśca pṛthivīṃ caiva tumulo vyanunādayan ||19||

Sloka 1.19 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:19

Gist of the sloka:

These sounds shook the battlefield and reached the skies vibrating everything in between. These sounds shook the heart of sons of Emperor Dhitrarastra.

Explanation:

Given that Emperor Dhitrarastra had originally spoken to Sanjaya as “my sons” and Pandavas, Sanjaya tries to give it back to him in similar fashion.

Explaining the disciplined way, Pandavas indicated their readiness and the earthshaking vibrations it created, Sanjaya addresses the fear it created in the Kauravas as “Dhitrarastra sons”.

Pandavas due their disciplined behavior had already won the mental battle by instilling fear in the hearts of Kauravas.

--

ಅಥ ವ್ಯವಸ್ಥಿತಾನ್ ದೃಷ್ಟ್ವಾ ಧಾರ್ತರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಾನ್ ಕಪಿಧ್ವಜಃ

ಪ್ರವೃತ್ತೇ ಶಸ್ತ್ರಸಂಪಾತೇ ಧನುರುದ್ಯಮ್ಯ ಪಾಂಡವಃ ೨೦

Sloka 1.20-to-1.23 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

atha vyavasthitān dṛṣṭvā dhārtarāṣṭrān kapidhvajaḥ |

pravṛtte śastrasaṃpāte dhanurudyamya pāṃḍavaḥ ||20||

Sloka 1.20 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:20

Gist of the sloka:

O Lord, Arjuna who had flag of Hanuman, seeing sons of Dhitrarastra being ready, took up and readied his bow, spoke to Lord Krishna as follows.

Explanation:

Once both sides indicated their readiness, Arjuna prepared himself for the battle. He readied his bow Gandhiva and spoke to Lord Krishna who was his charioteer as follows.

Lord Hanuman was the symbol on Arjuna’s flag; which was flying atop his chariot. Bheema [who was an avatar of Lord Vayu] was once on his way to collect ‘Sougandhika’ flowers and met another avatar of Lord Vayu – Hanuman. During the discussions, Hanuman had promised to protect Arjuna during the forthcoming war by being present atop Arjuna’s chariot, by being resident in the flag.

It is similar to Lord Prana [Lord Vayu] being ever present [and protecting] in one’s living body along with Lord Krishna and the individual soul.

Arjuna had such a Lord protecting him from top while the Lord himself being his charioteer. He had in his hands Gandhiva a powerful bow. All these made Arjuna get ego as to his invincibility giving raise to his egoistic talk to Lord, which comes next.

Lord here [in this sloka alone] means Lord of Sanjaya, King Dhritrarastra.

--

 ಹೃಷೀಕೇಶಂ ತದಾ ವಾಕ್ಯಮಿದಮಾಹ ಮಹೀಪತೇ

ಅರ್ಜುನ ಉವಾಚ

ಸೇನಯೋರುಭಯೋರ್ಮಧ್ಯೇ ರಥಂ ಸ್ಥಾಪಯ ಮೇsಚ್ಯುತ ೨೧

hr̥ṣīkēśaṁ tadā vākyamidamāha mahīpatē |

arjuna uvāca |

sēnayōrubhayōrmadhyē rathaṁ sthāpaya mēscyuta ||21||

Sloka 1.21 and 1.22 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:21

Gist of the sloka:

One who is infallible, Krishna, park my chariot in between the two armies.

Explanation:

If you notice, the tone and choice of the words, was as though the Arjuna was directing/issuing instructions to his charioteer.

Lord Krishna the universal Lord was acting like a charioteer for sake of Arjuna, but Arjuna instead of addressing the lord respectfully, did the opposite.

The word Achutha means one who is infallible or incapable of making mistakes or ever being wrong himself. Which showed that internally Arjuna’s consciousness still had very deep respect to the Lord but due to temporary belief at his own strength made him use the words as a “directive” towards Lord.

--

ಯಾವದೇತಾನ್ ನಿರೀಕ್ಷೇsಹಂ ಯೋದ್ಧುಕಾಮಾನವಸ್ಥಿತಾನ್

ಕೈರ್ಮಯಾ ಸಹ ಯೋದ್ಧವ್ಯಮಸ್ಮಿನ್ ರಣಸಮುದ್ಯಮೇ ೨೨

yāvadetān nirīkṣeshaṃ yoddhukāmānavasthitān |

kairmayā saha yoddhavyamasmin raṇasamudyame ||22||

Sloka 1:22

Gist of the sloka:

I would like to view those who have come to fight me and those with whom I might have to fight.

Explanation:

This is the first documented world war on Earth. Many armies from various parts of the Earth were assembled for the war.

Ego inside Arjuna is showing up. With the belief, he is a great warrior with immense strength, he directs Krishna to park his chariot in between the armies so that he could size up the assembled warriors.

He wants to view those who have come to fight him. It is his belief that he being a great warrior everyone else against him must be foolish or immaterial. He believes all those will be defeated and be dead.

Overconfidence creates ego, which is dangerous and leads you to forget them – on whose strength, you got the confidence in the first place.

--

 ಯೋತ್ಸ್ಯಮಾನಾನವೇಕ್ಷೇSಹಂ ಯ ಏತೇSತ್ರ ಸಮಾಗತಾಃ

ಧಾರ್ತರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಸ್ಯ ದುರ್ಬುದ್ಧೇರ್ಯುದ್ಧೇ ಪ್ರಿಯಚಿಕೀರ್ಷವಃ ೨೩

yotsyamānānavekṣeShaṃ ya eteStra samāgatāḥ |

dhārtarāṣṭrasya durbuddheryuddhe priyacikīrṣavaḥ ||23||

Sloka 1.23 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:23

Gist of the sloka:

Arjuna says I wish to view those foolish people who have come to fight on behalf of Duryodhana and trying to please him.

Explanation:

Arjuna in an egoistic manner, wishes to view those people who have assembled wishing well to the evil Duryodhana. Again, the tone of the words is like a directive to a charioteer; clearly indicative that his ego has overtaken his respect for the Lord.

--

ಸಂಜಯ ಉವಾಚ

ಏವಮುಕ್ತೋ ಹೃಷೀಕೇಶೋ ಗುಡಾಕೇಶೇನ ಭಾರತ

ಸೇನಯೋರುಭಯೋರ್ಮಧ್ಯೇ ಸ್ಥಾಪಯಿತ್ವಾ ರಥೋತ್ತಮಮ್ ೨೪

Sloka 1.24-to-1.27 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

saṃjaya uvāca |

evamukto hṛṣīkeśo guḍākeśena bhārata |

senayorubhayormadhye sthāpayitvā rathottamam ||24||

Sloka 1.24 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:24

Gist of the sloka:

Sanjaya said

O King of the Bharatha dynasty, hearing the words of Gudakesha, Lord Hrishikesha stopped his great chariot in between the two armies.

Explanation:

Sanjaya continuing his commentary to Emperor Dhitrarastra, informed him that Lord of Senses [Hrishikesha] stopped the chariot in between the two armies. Arjuna is called Gudakesha as one who had conquered sleep.

Ego, overconfidence etc., are all mental states of a person. Lord Krishna being the lord of the senses, starts applying psychotherapy to Arjuna; to remove the ego and overconfidence in Arjuna. Gita happens to be the first book of Psychology in the world.

--

ಭೀಷ್ಮದ್ರೋಣಪ್ರಮುಖತಃ ಸರ್ವೇಷಾಂ ಚ ಮಹೀಕ್ಷಿತಾಮ್

ಉವಾಚ ಪಾರ್ಥ ಪಶ್ಯೈತಾನ್ ಸಮವೇತಾನ್ ಕುರೂನಿತಿ ೨೫

bhīṣmadroṇapramukhataḥ sarveṣāṃ ca mahīkṣitām |

uvāca pārtha paśyaitān samavetān kurūniti ||25||

Sloka 1.25 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:25

Gist of the sloka:

Right in front of the various seniors like Bheeshmacharya and Dronacharya, Lord Krishna placed the chariot and addressing Arjuna said “Hey Partha, see the assembled Kuru’s”.

Explanation:

Lord Krishna, as per Arjuna’s directions placed the chariot such that Arjuna can directly see the Kuru elders like Bheeshmacharya [Arjuna’s grandfather], Dronacharya [his Teacher].

Krishna draws the attention of Arjuna by invoking his inner sense of belonging to Kuru dynasty and also addresses him as Partha – s/o of Pruthu [Kunti].

This is Krishna’s attempt to start invoking psychotherapy. Lord Krishna is trying to bring out the inner feelings and thoughts of Arjuna in trying to both remove his ego and his sense of attachment.

Arjuna is a kshatriya and as such belonging to ruling class, he is supposed to treat all as per their deeds & actions; rather than coloring them as relatives or nonrelatives.

Lord Krishna was testing his commitment to stand against evil and stand for righteousness. For such should be the real character of a Kshatriya.

Secondly, Krishna was testing him to see his commitment to continue the war [for righteousness] even in case it was his senior relatives opposing him and saw similar kind of people in his own side. All of whom could be hurt in this war.

The name Partha was deliberately invoked to remind Arjuna that his mother ‘Prithu’ was known for her righteousness despite encountering difficulties, all her life. He being her son was expected to emulate her.

--

ತತ್ರಾಪಶ್ಯತ್ ಸ್ಥಿತಾನ್ ಪಾರ್ಥಃ ಪಿತೄನಥ ಪಿತಾಮಹಾನ್

ಆಚಾರ್ಯಾನ್ಮಾತುಲಾನ್ ಭ್ರಾತೄನ್ ಪುತ್ರಾನ್ ಪೌತ್ರಾನ್ ಸಖೀಂಸ್ತಥಾ ೨೬

tatrāpaśyat sthitān pārthaḥ pitṝnatha pitāmahān |

ācāryānmātulān bhrātṝn putrān pautrān sakhīṃstathā ||26||

Sloka 1.26 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:26

Gist of the sloka:

At position where the chariot was parked, Arjuna could see, within the armies of both sides, people who were equivalent of his father, grandfathers, teachers, maternal uncles, brothers, sons, grandsons, friends, and his father-in-law and well-wishers.

Explanation:

Arjuna for the first time in the battlefield realizes that his own people who were equivalent of his father, grandfathers, teachers, maternal uncles, brothers, sons, grandsons, friends, and his father-in-law and well-wishers – are all present for the war.

Until now Arjuna, who was confident about his capability, now realized the full extent of the war. Its destructive capability which could take down the lives and arms of his near relatives. Some of them he might never see them alive, post the war. The psychological impact of this was fully felt by Arjuna and his subsequent words indicate the same.

In a way, Lord Krishna wanted to give a shock treatment to Arjuna to set him up for psychotherapy.

Please note that while there were many more non-relatives than relatives/friends, Arjuna only saw those who were known to him directly. He ignored those others who were also put into similar situation of fighting a war and probably losing their lives. As a Kshatriya, he showed his weakness for his relatives/friends when he should have treated all as equals.

--

 ಶ್ವಶುರಾನ್ ಸುಹೃದಶ್ಚೈವ ಸೇನಯೋರುಭಯೋರಪಿ

ತಾನ್ ಸಮೀಕ್ಷ್ಯ ಸ ಕೌಂತೇಯಃ ಸರ್ವಾನ್ ಬಂಧೂನವಸ್ಥಿತಾನ್ ೨೭

śvaśurān suhṛdaścaiva senayorubhayorapi |

tān samīkṣya sa kauṃteyaḥ sarvān baṃdhūnavasthitān ||27||

Sloka 1.27 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:27

Gist of the sloka:

Seeing all his relatives and friends at the same battlefield, Arjuna felt the sense of emotions and in great sorrowfulness spoke as follows

Explanation:

Seeing all the assembled relatives/friends; Arjuna felt deep pity, sorrow on the possible destructions of them, and poured out his heart to Lord Krishna.

Before proceeding on to rest of the Gita, there is an important issue which needs to be understood well.

At the initial glance, it appears as though Lord Krishna is trying to force Arjuna who appears to be reluctant to fight his relatives. The point to be noted is as a King under Yudhishthira and as a Kshatriya, Arjuna should have noted that those who side with truth and Dharma are his relatives and those who don’t are his enemies. This is the only criteria for a ruler.

It is similar to role of a judge, who irrespective who appears in front of him, the judge is expected to be impartial and implement the judgement favoring dharma.

Also, if Arjuna had expressed the wish that the people of country are risk due to war; not necessarily his relatives/friends he would have demonstrated his even mindedness. Rather he was only concerned with his relatives/friends making him fail as a kshatriya.

Lord Krishna, was therefore trying to set right Arjuna’s value systems by forcing the situation as a step towards psychotherapy,

Arjuna tries multiple ways to convince Lord Krishna about his point of view. Lord Krishna refuses to answer Arjuna on his viewpoints directly, as it would have led to empty discussions based on wrong foundations. Lord Krishna wanted to rather spend the effort in discussing the truth and set right Arjuna’s [and our] value system.

--

ಕೃಪಯಾ ಪರಯಾssವಿಷ್ಟೋ ವಿಷೀದನ್ನಿದಮಬ್ರವೀತ್

ಅರ್ಜುನ ಉವಾಚ

ದೃಷ್ಟ್ವೇಮಂ ಸ್ವಜನಂ ಕೃಷ್ಣ ಯುಯುತ್ಸುಂ ಸಮುಪಸ್ಥಿತಮ್ ೨೮

ಸೀದಂತಿ ಮಮ ಗಾತ್ರಾಣಿ ಮುಖಂ ಚ ಪರಿಶುಷ್ಯತಿ

ವೇಪಥುಶ್ಚ ಶರೀರೇ ಮೇ ರೋಮಹರ್ಷಶ್ಚ ಜಾಯತೇ ೨೯

Sloka 1.28-to-1.39 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

kṛpayā parayāssviṣṭo viṣīdannidamabravīt |

arjuna uvāca |

dṛṣṭvemaṃ svajanaṃ kṛṣṇa yuyutsuṃ samupasthitam ||28||

sīdaṃti mama gātrāṇi mukhaṃ ca pariśuṣyati |

vepathuśca śarīre me romaharṣaśca jāyate ||29||

Sloka 1.28 and 1.29 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:28 & 29

Gist of the sloka:

O Krishna, seeing the battle enthusiasm in my relatives who have assembled here, my arms are shivering, my throat is parched, and my entire body is shaking.

Explanation:

Arjuna expresses to Lord Krishna as follows: Seeing the senior warrior relatives in the battlefield ready to fight, I am ashamed. We, who are well knowledgeable have deliberately put them and ourselves into this situation. I am ashamed that we put ourselves into this state of affairs.

Seeing them, I am unable to speak, my body is shivering, and my arms are getting weak.

Arjuna first shows compassion, then shame and finally fear. The exact states which a person undergoes in real life.

--

 ಗಾಂಡೀವಂ ಸ್ರಂಸತೇ ಹಸ್ತಾತ್ ತ್ವಕ್ ಚೈವ ಪರಿದಹ್ಯತೇ

ನಚ ಶಕ್ನೋಮ್ಯವಸ್ಥಾತುಂ ಭ್ರಮತೀವ ಚ ಮೇ ಮನಃ ೩೦

gāṃḍīvaṃ sraṃsate hastāt tvak caiva paridahyate |

naca śaknomyavasthātuṃ bhramatīva ca me manaḥ ||30||

Sloka 1.30 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:30

Gist of the sloka:

Gandhiva [might bow of Arjuna] is slipping from my hands; my skin is burning; unable to stand and my mind is confused.

Explanation:

Arjuna is describing the effect the emotions is having on his physical body. Due to fear the palms is sweating and he is unable to hold on to his mighty bow Gandhiva. His skin due to anxiety is showing burning sensation and he is unable to stand firmly in the chariot. All of these is the physical symptoms of the state of his mind – which highly disturbed.

The mind and physical body are interlinked. When the mind is disturbed, the body cannot be still. You can see it when a person who is disturbed cannot sit still but gets up and walks around until he reaches a state of calmness. Similar is the case when a person is calm, he is able to sit still.

Hence the recommendation that before meditating that one sit still, do pranayama to still the breath [inner prana kosha/body] and there by calming the mind. All these required to enhance and concentrate the mind on Lord – also known as Dhyana yoga.

--

 ನಿಮಿತ್ತಾನಿ ಚ ಪಶ್ಯಾಮಿ ವಿಪರೀತಾನಿ ಕೇಶವ

ನಚ ಶ್ರೇಯೋsನುಪಶ್ಯಾಮಿ ಹತ್ವಾ ಸ್ವಜನಮಾಹವೇ ೩೧

nimittāni ca paśyāmi viparītāni keśava |

naca śreyosnupaśyāmi hatvā svajanamāhave ||31||

Sloka 1.31 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:31

Gist of the sloka:

O Keshava, I am only seeing bad omens. I am unable to visualize if it means bad or good for my people.

Explanation:

Even though the omens were known to Arjuna even before entering the battlefield, he now recollects them and tries to use it as a reason to convince Lord Krishna. Anxiety which had taken hold of Arjuna makes him use all his wit and reasons to achieve his objective.

The world is interlinked in multiple ways. From a smallest atom to the huge universe everything is linked and is mathematical [astronomy, astrophysics]. This is the cause for the science of astrology, reading of omens, panchanga [almanac] etc., as they are all interlinked and can be deduced mathematically.

Incidents which we call as ‘accidents/coincidence’ are actually neither ‘accidental’ nor ‘coincidental’. It only means that we do not know as to how the events happened but are events planned by Master of the Universe, Lord Krishna.

Let’s take a look at the various omens in Mahabharatha. Elephants, horses were showing signs of tears before entering the battlefield. Foxes were roaming around the camps. This is in alignment with the general observations that animals seem to sense disasters much before it happens.

There were two eclipses during the war. One on the 5th day and another on 18th day. All within the span of 18 days of the war. This indicated very destructive war with major loss of lives. This in fact was mentioned to Emperor Yudhishthira by Sage Veda Vyasa much before, by indicating that the Emperor son Duryodhana would be cause of major worldly destruction and loss of lives.

Remembering all these omens, Arjuna addresses Lord Krishna as “Keshava”. Lord Krishna means “one who has descended to Earth to give joyfulness and strength”. Keshava is split into 3 parts - Ka+esha+va. Ka meaning one who gives strength to Brahman for creation, esha means one who gives strength to Shankara for destruction of the created world. Together it means one who gives the strength for both creation and destruction of the world. In other words, meaning one who rules the created universe and is responsible for it.

The reason Arjuna uses the word ‘Keshava’ to address Lord Krishna is in a way trying to remind the Lord Krishna that he is the one who has descended to give happiness and strength to the world, but now he is trying to force a war and destruction on the same world.

Please also note, that on the 18th day of the war, the Dwarapara yuga ended and Kali age started.

Arjuna continues to come up with various reasoning to back away from his commitment to war. We see this in the succeeding stanzas.

--

ನ ಕಾಂಕ್ಷೇ ವಿಜಯಂ ಕೃಷ್ಣ ನಚ ರಾಜ್ಯಂ ಸುಖಾನಿ ಚ

ಕಿಂ ನೋ ರಾಜ್ಯೇನ ಗೋವಿಂದ ಕಿಂ ಭೋಗೈರ್ಜೀವಿತೇನ ವಾ ೩೨

na kāṃkṣe vijayaṃ kṛṣṇa naca rājyaṃ sukhāni ca |

kiṃ no rājyena goviṃda kiṃ bhogairjīvitena vā ||32||

Sloka 1.32 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:32

Gist of the sloka:

Krishna, I do not wish to win the war; neither the kingdom nor the comforts. Govinda, what will we obtain? Richness and comfort? What is the use of such living?

Explanation:

Arjuna is expressing his emotional thoughts with a belief that once his relatives/friends are dead in the upcoming war, he would have no use for the kingdom, its comforts nor the very reason to live when they [relatives] are no longer alive.

Arjuna was not the decider for either going into or exiting from the war. He was under the leadership of his elder brother King Yudhishthira. He was expected to devote himself to his fullest ability to win the war for his brother and King. Rather he talks as though he could decide.

He also addresses Lord Krishna as ‘Krishna’. The name means one who attracts all towards himself. Here Arjuna in a sense seems to be accusing the Lord Krishna as one who has attracted all those assembled to the battlefield, for their destruction.

He then addresses the Lord Krishna as ‘Govinda’. The name means one who is the single purport of Vedas, only one who fully understands the Vedas, one who came down to earth, one who is a cow herd etc.,

Lord Krishna was also one who even though he had eliminated thousands of evil beings never got himself crowned as a King. Rather Lord Krishna in this avatar was satisfied being a cow herd.

In a way, Arjuna was trying to align himself as being of similar to Lord Krishna – with no desire to own a kingdom like the Lord. While at the same time, challenging the Lord Krishna was why he was in favor of war when Arjuna had no such desire.

--

ಯೇಷಾಮರ್ಥೇ ಕಾಂಕ್ಷಿತಂ ನೋ ರಾಜ್ಯಂ ಭೋಗಾಃ ಸುಖಾನಿ ಚ

ತ ಇಮೇSವಸ್ಥಿತಾ ಯುದ್ಧೇ ಪ್ರಾಣಾಂಸ್ತ್ಯಕ್ತ್ವಾ ಧನಾನಿ ಚ ೩೩

yeṣāmarthe kāṃkṣitaṃ no rājyaṃ bhogāḥ sukhāni ca|

ta imeSvasthitā yuddhe prāṇāṃstyaktvā dhanāni ca ||33||

Sloka 1.33 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:33

Gist of the sloka:

For whose sake is this need for rulership? These people, throwing aside richness and kingdoms [properties] have stood for fight, because of expectation of rewards and comforts.

Explanation:

Even if one needed this rulership/kingdom, it would be for whose sake? After all we should be keeping our teachers, senior relatives happy and comfortable. Rather after killing them, how can we be happy?

For whose sake we were hoping to win the kingdom, they themselves have leaving aside all their possessions, desires and their lives, have aligned themselves to fight the war.

--

 ಆಚಾರ್ಯಾಃ ಪಿತರಃ ಪುತ್ರಾಸ್ತಥೈವ ಚ ಪಿತಾಮಹಾಃ

ಮಾತುಲಾಃ ಶ್ವಶುರಾಃ ಪೌತ್ರಾಃ ಸ್ಯಾಲಾಃ ಸಂಬಂಧಿನಸ್ತಥಾ ೩೪

ācāryāḥ pitaraḥ putrāstathaiva ca pitāmahāḥ |

mātulāḥ śvaśurāḥ pautrāḥ syālāḥ saṃbaṃdhinastathā ||34||

Sloka 1.34 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:34

Gist of the sloka:

Teachers, father like figures, children also grandfathers, father in laws, maternal uncles, grandchildren, brother in laws, and relatives.

Explanation:

Continuing, his reflection of seeing only his relatives, Arjuna gives out the entire list of various relatives to Lord Krishna. Arjuna by this time as completely forgotten that he is also responsible for all subjects not necessarily to his relatives alone.

--

 ಏತಾನ್ ನ  ಹಂತುಮಿಚ್ಛಾಮಿ ಘ್ನತೋsಪಿ ಮಧುಸೂದನ

ಅಪಿ ತ್ರೈಲೋಕ್ಯರಾಜ್ಯಸ್ಯ ಹೇತೋಃ ಕಿಂ ನು ಮಹೀಕೃತೇ ೩೫

etān na  haṃtumicchāmi ghnatospi madhusūdana |

api trailokyarājyasya hetoḥ kiṃ nu mahīkṛte ||35||

Sloka 1.35 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:35

Gist of the sloka:

O Madhusudhana, I do not wish to kill those who have come to kill me – even if I am offered the rulership of the entire 3 Worlds. What else should I say about rulership of the Earth?

Explanation:

I do not desire to kill these people. Even if they come to kill me, even then I would not kill them. Even if the entire rulership of the Universe, is offered to me, I would refuse to fight them. Why then should I fight for this small piece of earth?

This shows the fluctuating mind that Arjuna is undergoing w.r.t the fighting the war.

Madhusudhana consists of two words. Madhu being ‘comfort’ and sudhana meaning one who destroys it. Madhusudhana literally means one who destroys comforts.

This is applicable to those who are following the path of evil [Tamasic personalities] against the will of Lord Krishna. Madhusudhana means one who destroys such evil person’s comforts and throws them into the Hell. It also means one who gives comforts to those who are Satvic personalities.

By invoking the name, Arjuna is trying to question Lord Krishna as to his real intention as war means destruction and death; whereas as Madhusudhana he is supposed to give happiness and comfort to people.

--

 ನಿಹತ್ಯ ಧಾರ್ತರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಾನ್ ನಃ  ಕಾ ಪ್ರೀತಿಃ ಸ್ಯಾಜ್ಜನಾರ್ದನ

ಪಾಪಮೇವಾsಶ್ರಯೇದಸ್ಮಾನ್ ಹತ್ವೈತಾನಾತತಾಯಿನಃ ೩೬

nihatya dhārtarāṣṭrān naḥ  kā prītiḥ syājjanārdana |

pāpamevāsśrayedasmān hatvaitānātatāyinaḥ ||36||

Sloka 1.36 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:36

Gist of the sloka:

By killing Dhitrarastra what will we gain Janardhana? We will in fact get sin, if we end up killing these people who are destroying the clan [parricide].

Explanation:

Arjuna is indicating that in case Dhitrarastra dies, then it would remain on their consciousness throughout their life affecting them with sorrow. Destroying the clan would only mean increase of sins and has no other benefit.

Arjuna uses the word “atathayi” to describe his cousins. The word means one who has lit fire to cause destruction to others property/life, one who has put poison in other’s food, one who has illegally obtained/occupied another’s property, one who has attacked another’s women etc.,

The dharma says such people who are “atathayi” needs to be killed wherever and whenever they are found. Preferably by the kshatriyas/rulers to ensure continuation of dharma.

Duryodhana, had qualified himself to be a “atathayi” in all criteria. He had lit the fire to house where Pandavas were staying. He had occupied the Kingdom which did not belong neither to him or to his father. He had poisoned Bheema. He had tried to disrobe his own sister-in-law Draupadi and that too in open court in front of his family elders.

Even after knowing all the above deeds of Duryodhana, Arjuna feels longing for his relations making him forget his primary duty to enforce dharma.

Arjuna is calling Lord Krishna as Janardhana. Which means one who destroys evil people and at the same time provides glorious death to his devotees who can then reach mukthi.

Arjuna is implying that being the Lord who gives mukthi to deserving; why do you insist on the war which only increases our sins and due to sins makes us continue to be born on earth again and again. Also, war is fought on basis of anger and desire, both of which is barrier to mukthi.

--

ತಸ್ಮಾನ್ನಾರ್ಹಾ ವಯಂ ಹಂತುಂ ಧಾರ್ತರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಾನ್ ಸ್ವಬಾಂಧವಾನ್

ಸ್ವಜನಂ ಹಿ ಕಥಂ ಹತ್ವಾ ಸುಖಿನಃ ಸ್ಯಾಮ ಮಾಧವ ೩೭

tasmānnārhā vayaṃ haṃtuṃ dhārtarāṣṭrān svabāṃdhavān |

svajanaṃ hi kathaṃ hatvā sukhinaḥ syāma mādhava ||37||

Sloka 1.37 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:37

Gist of the sloka:

Therefore, killing of our relatives and Emperor Dhitrarastra is not the right way. How can we find happiness by killing our relatives?

Explanation:

Forgetting that he belongs to a ruler class and expected to follow its dharma [protecting the good against evil], Arjuna, tries to convince Lord Krishna as follows. How can we be happy after killing our cousins and uncle Emperor Dhitrarastra.

Arjuna uses Madhawa to call Lord Krishna. The implication being not only are you not just son of my maternal uncle but also the universal force who can stop this war. Yet, you are not making the attempt to stop this destruction.

Look at the irony of the situation. The universal Lord is Arjuna’s friend, his relative and is sitting in the same chariot; but Arjuna is going through so intense confusions. Similar is the case wherein Yashoda saw in the Lord Krishna mouth the entire cosmic universe but few moments later was chasing her son to punish him for spilling milk.

When this is the case of Arjuna, what about rest of us?

--

 ಯದ್ಯಪ್ಯೇತೇ ನ ಪಶ್ಯಂತಿ ಲೋಭೋಪಹತಚೇತಸಃ

ಕುಲಕ್ಷಯಕೃತಂ ದೋಷಂ ಮಿತ್ರದ್ರೋಹೇ ಚ ಪಾತಕಮ್ ೩೮

yadyapyete na paśyaṃti lobhopahatacetasaḥ |

kulakṣayakṛtaṃ doṣaṃ mitradrohe ca pātakam ||38||

Sloka 1.38 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:38

Gist of the sloka:

Their heart is filled with greed. They are not even aware of how their actions might cause death to the clan, relatives and friends.

Explanation:

Arjuna says: Desiring for riches, blinded by greed they have lost their ability to think clearly. By these actions the clan might be wiped out. The entire country might become without leadership and successors. Being relatives, we should have lived together in harmony. Rather we are now demonstrating enmity with each other. This is treason.

Arjuna uses the word ‘mitra’. Mitra is one who is with us all the time through thick and thin, anticipating possible future bad situations and takes on his own the preventive actions without expecting anything in return. Someone who gives himself up before disaster hits us.

--

 ಕಥಂ ನ ಜ್ಞೇಯಮಸ್ಮಾಭಿಃ ಪಾಪಾದಸ್ಮಾನ್ನಿವರ್ತಿತುಮ್

ಕುಲಕ್ಷಯಕೃತಂ ದೋಷಂ ಪ್ರಪಶ್ಯದ್ಭಿರ್ಜನಾರ್ದನ ೩೯

kathaṃ na jñeyamasmābhiḥ pāpādasmānnivartitum |

kulakṣayakṛtaṃ doṣaṃ prapaśyadbhirjanārdana ||39||

Sloka 1.39 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:39

Gist of the sloka:

O Janardhana, as we are aware of possible result of war, which could wipe out our clan, do we need to continue into the war? Why not withdraw from this situation?

Explanation:

Arjuna says: We are aware of how great the destruction this war could cause. I can clearly visualize that this war would definitely wipe out our clan. Even after know all the destruction this war could cause, what then is the use of us having such knowledge? If we proceed, what then would be difference between ourselves and Duryodhana?

Arjuna uses the name Janardhana to imply that Lord Krishna who gives mukthi – the escape from birth and deaths, should be stopping the war which causes sins and destruction - rebirth.

--

 ಕುಲಕ್ಷಯೇ ಪ್ರಣಶ್ಯಂತಿ ಕುಲಧರ್ಮಾಃ ಸನಾತನಾಃ

ಧರ್ಮೇ ನಷ್ಟೇ ಕುಲಂ ಕೃತ್ಸ್ನಮಧರ್ಮೋsಭಿಭವತ್ಯುತ ೪೦

Sloka 1.40 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

kulakṣaye praṇaśyaṃti kuladharmāḥ sanātanāḥ |

dharme naṣṭe kulaṃ kṛtsnamadharmosbhibhavatyuta ||40||

Sloka 1.40 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:40

Gist of the sloka:

When the clan/society sinks, the age-old dharma of the society is destroyed. Once the dharma is destroyed only evil percolates into the everyday behavior and society.

Explanation:

Arjuna, is indicating that once the clan/society is destroyed, the acceptable rules and regulations governing the society/clan is also destroyed as people who follow and enforce such moral rules are no longer around. Society collapses and entire society is now blanketed with evil forces. By continuing into the war we are encouraging evil and gifting it to the weakened society.

There is various dharma’s under which we go about every day: Jathi dharma, kula dharma, marriage/vivaha dharma, individual dharma and Sanathana dharma. We need to first understand them in little more detail.

Typically, we assume jathi dharma represents caste dharma – representing the 4 categories in the society Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vyshya, Shudra. Kula [samaja] dharma representing the trade or profession that one belongs to – priest, officer of the court, potter, farmer etc., Vivaha dharma indicates the various rites for performance of a marriage which again changes according to social strata, caste, time etc., While kula dharma represents the dharma for the clan/group of people, individual dharma is specific to each individual representing his beliefs, value and ethics. All of these changes over time, regions, applicability etc.,

Among all of the above, the Lord given dharma as mentioned in the Vedas is Sanathana dharma, which is never changing universal rules and regulations governing across all people, across all age groups and periods of time. Every other dharma must be in alignment with this dharma.

Our atma/soul characteristics is true nature and called ‘swabhava’. Unfortunately, due to family, clan we are born into, societal influences, how we grew up etc., this original character of the soul is covered with various layers called “prabhava”/influencers. This discovery of our own natural ‘swabhava’ character is very difficult due the various layers it is under. We therefore go with ‘prabhava’ believing it to be ‘swabhava’. Behavior according this ‘prabhava’ is jathi dharma.

Samaja [society] dharma: We are unable to live alone. We are product of the society and need the society to survive. As such, there are acceptable practices that one is expected to follow, to live in a society. Vivaha dharma is a subset of this.

For example, one who by nature speaks loudly is expected not to do so when he enters a quite zone like temple or hospital. He naturally lets go of his individual dharma [speaking loudly] and accepts the supremacy of Samaja dharma. Similar is the case with smoking etc., Basically, the society dharma takes supremacy over individual or other subset of dharmas.

This was the case with Vivaha[marriage] dharma also. Originally during the vedic period, girls were not sent to the gurukula. Rather they would be at a tender age of 8-9 years would be married to a gurukula graduate [around 16-18 yrs. old] boy. The boy would then start his own gurukula in the village where the girl would be his student for numbers of years until she matures to be a woman. By this time, she would know the husband very well along with his parental family, likes dislikes etc. and vice versa, She would also recognize him to be her first guru and respect would continue from both sides given the deep understanding already established.

In fact, both in Ramayana and Mahabharatha this practice of child marriage did not exist as by then society had changed a bit.

The child marriage again came into force during and after the various invasions from other cultures and religions. This forced the parents to re-introduce the system to safe guard the girl from being taken advantage of. Again, in the last few decades given the improved security the child marriage practice is being discontinued. In short, vivaha dharma is a societal offshoot and changeable according to the existing social conditions.

Sanathana dharma, is never changing, ever applicable, in all countries and societies and in all situations to all the populace and is cast in stone. For example, telling truth in all conditions, never steal, one should behave with integrity, belief in the universal lord are such dharma.

All other dharmas should be in alignment with Sanathana dharma. An individual dharma should be subordinate to samaja dharma etc.,

On the corollary, what means dharma could mean adharma [against] depending upon the intent and action. Eye is meant to see. It could also be used to see unwanted things. Same with other sense organs including mind, intellect etc.,

One should therefore use their intellect to analyse the given situation to see what is in alignment with dharma and what is not and appropriately act.

--

ಅಧರ್ಮಾಭಿಭವಾತ್ ಕೃಷ್ಣ ಪ್ರದುಷ್ಯಂತಿ ಕುಲಸ್ತ್ರಿಯಃ

ಸ್ತ್ರೀಷು ದುಷ್ಟಾಸು ವಾರ್ಷ್ಣೇಯ ಜಾಯತೇ ವರ್ಣಸಂಕರಃ ೪೧

Sloka 1.41 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

adharmābhibhavāt kṛṣṇa praduṣyaṃti kulastriyaḥ |

strīṣu duṣṭāsu vārṣṇeya jāyate varṇasaṃkaraḥ ||41||

Sloka 1.41 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:41

Gist of the sloka:

O Varshneya, due to the assault on the society, women would lose their way. The society then would be subject to mixing of the varnas.

Explanation:

Due to the war, most of youth in the society would die. Society lacking in able bodied youth would be unable to protect the innocent women. Due to which the society might misuse her innocence and perpetuate mixing of varnas affecting the society.

Varna here indicates [swabhava] characteristic of an individual not Jatti [as being born into community].

The ancient texts indicate that the women should not be forced into higher education or tasks against her will, as it causes deep stress and would affect her health including reproductive organs like uterus. She would already have been burdened enough with the household and responsibilities of looking after a family. Any additional stress is not required, and it is sure to have definite implications to the child who might be born to her.

Also, if she develops relationships with multiple men, the psychological impact would result in a child who would not adhere nor show any responsibility towards the societal norms or other dharmas. This would over a period of time destroy the balance in the society affecting all. This is the purport of Arjuna indicating ‘mixing of varnas’.

Arjuna addresses Lord Krishna as ‘Varshneya’. The originator and most important king in the Yadava dynasty is King named ‘Varshni’. Lord Krishna belong to this dynasty is called as Varshneya – one who belongs to Varshni dynasty.

The Lord name Varshneya is also mentioned in the Vedas. The name also means one who descended to Earth and one who gives the required power to the demi-Gods to perform their jobs. Arjuna uses this name in the sense ‘why you, who gives the power to demi-Gods is not stopping this war and destruction?’.

--

ಸಂಕರೋ ನರಕಾಯೈವ ಕುಲಘ್ನಾನಾಂ ಕುಲಸ್ಯ ಚ

ಪತಂತಿ  ಪಿತರೋ ಹ್ಯೇಷಾಂ ಲುಪ್ತಪಿಂಡೋದಕಕ್ರಿಯಾಃ ೪೨

Sloka 1.42 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

saṃkaro narakāyaiva kulaghnānāṃ kulasya ca |

pataṃti  pitaro hyeṣāṃ luptapiṃḍodakakriyāḥ ||42||

Sloka 1.42 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:42

Gist of the sloka:

These people who have destroyed their own society, will not offer the oblations due to the ancestors pushing them into hell.

Explanation:

These children born into such society will make the entire society fall into hell. So would those like us who were cause of such a situation. When the society is filled with such non-compliance to the dharma, the society loses its confidence. They will stop offering oblations [pinda] to the ancestors who will then fall into hell. Those who caused the situation in the first place and their children too would fall into hell. This is the gist of Arjuna’s thoughts.

Let us try to understand the concept behind ‘pinda’. We are right now in the gross [Anamaya] body and various ‘tatva abhimani demi-Gods’ [benevolent demigods] keep protecting us and helping us on our journey in this body. We therefore, while in gross body offer various poojas to them.

Death is nothing but release from this gross body but continuing in the subtle [Sukshma] body. We also have other bodies within subtle body known as ‘manomaya [mind] kosha and ‘prana kosha’. The body surrounding the soul is called ‘vijnanamaya’ [knowledge] kosha.

Once we have left the gross body, the responsibility is shifted to separate class of demi-Gods called ‘pithru’ devatas [demi-Gods]. The ‘pinda’ offering done after the passing away of the ancestor is to these devatas. The reason being, in case the ancestor’s progress has been hampered due to his ‘prarabdha’ [past or accumulated sins], then the prayer to these devatas is to protect him from such obstacles.

A non-gross body does not need gross energy/food to sustain. The presence of crow appearing and taking the pinda offering is an omen given by such devatas to us to indicate they have received and accepted our oblations. They in turn give the required blessings in whatever form our ancestor requires them irrespective where and what state they are in or born into.

--

 ದೋಷೈರೇತೈಃ ಕುಲಘ್ನಾನಾಂ ವರ್ಣಸಂಕರಕಾರಕೈಃ

ಉತ್ಸಾದ್ಯಂತೇ ಜಾತಿಧರ್ಮಾಃ ಕುಲಧರ್ಮಾಶ್ಚ ಶಾಶ್ವತಾಃ ೪೩

Sloka 1.43-to-1.47 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannaje Govindacharya)

doṣairetaiḥ kulaghnānāṃ varṇasaṃkarakārakaiḥ |

utsādyaṃte jātidharmāḥ kuladharmāśca śāśvatāḥ ||43||

Sloka 1.43 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:43

Gist of the sloka:

Those who have no responsibility of their actions destroy the society, clans, its proper dharma and destroys its very existence.

Explanation:

War destroys youth, leaders, creates imbalance between men-women. To set right the status it might take unknown number of years. By proceeding to the war, we might be the cause of such actions. By destroying the balance in the society, we might disturb the society, its dharma along with the natural growth and evolution of one’s character [swabhava]. Sanathana dharma itself might be hurt. This is the purport of Arjuna to Lord Krishna.

Mahabharatha war caused over 50 lakh people to lose their lives. This represented almost 10% of the population of the country at that time.

--

 ಉತ್ಸನ್ನಕುಲಧರ್ಮಾಣಾಂ ಮನುಷ್ಯಾಣಾಂ ಜನಾರ್ದನ

ನರಕೇ ನಿಯತಂ ವಾಸೋ ಭವತೀತ್ಯನುಶುಶ್ರುಮ ೪೪

utsannakuladharmāṇāṃ manuṣyāṇāṃ janārdana |

narake niyataṃ vāso bhavatītyanuśuśruma ||44||

Sloka 1.44 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:44

Gist of the sloka:

O Janardhana, I have heard, that for those who have destroyed the samaja dharma, Hell is the only everlasting place for them.

Explanation:

Arjuna is implying [as per what he has understood from teachers] that post the war, living on the earth would be hell and being the cause of such destruction, they would get hell post death – probably permanently. All caused by our own actions.

--

 ಅಹೋ ಬತ ಮಹತ್ ಪಾಪಂ ಕರ್ತುಂ ವ್ಯವಸಿತಾ ವಯಮ್

ಯದ್ ರಾಜ್ಯಸುಖಲೋಭೇನ ಹಂತುಂ ಸ್ವಜನಮುದ್ಯತಾಃ ೪೫

aho bata mahat pāpaṃ kartuṃ vyavasitā vayam |

yad rājyasukhalobhena haṃtuṃ svajanamudyatāḥ ||45||

Sloka 1.45 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:45

Gist of the sloka:

Oh, what a major mistake we were about to commit. In the desire to obtain rulership and comforts, we were greedy enough to kill our own relatives.

Explanation:

Arjuna almost on the verge of collapsing says, what a major sin/action we were about to commit. By proceeding in this manner, we would not only have killed our own relations but would also be cause of destruction of the society as it is now.

--

 ಯದಿ ಮಾಮಪ್ರತೀಕಾರಮಶಸ್ತ್ರಮ್  ಶಸ್ತ್ರಪಾಣಯಃ

ಧಾರ್ತರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಾ ರಣೇ ಹನ್ಯುಸ್ತನ್ಮೇ ಕ್ಷೇಮತರಂ ಭವೇತ್ ೪೬

yadi māmapratīkāramaśastram  śastrapāṇayaḥ |

dhārtarāṣṭrā raṇe hanyustanme kṣemataraṃ bhavet ||46||

Sloka 1.46 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:46

Gist of the sloka:

If Emperor Dhitrarastra was to appear in front of me to kill me, who has held a weapon in his hands but would not want to fight, I would consider such a death my greatest blessings.

Explanation:

I would not react even when they come to attack me. If they kill me even when I am holding a weapon, I would not use it. I would rather consider such a death my greatest blessings. How can I see such destruction and continue to live? Whatever happens I no longer wish for the battle. Arjuna completely collapses overwhelmed with confusion and emotional stress.

It was the same Arjuna who commanded Lord Krishna to stop the chariot in between the armies. He had enormous confidence at that time. Lord Krishna noticing the ego which had crept into Arjuna, parked the chariot so that deep unconscious feeling that Arjuna had within himself [without he being aware either] would first come out.

Moment Arjuna saw his elders his deepest emotional feelings towards his relations came out and affected his confidence.

One of the critical aspects of any psychotherapy is to first bring out the hidden thoughts, emotions of the person before actually starting the therapy. Lord Krishna being the first such therapy doctor demonstrates to the world as to how it has to be done.

--

 ಸಂಜಯ ಉವಾಚ

ಏವಮುಕ್ತ್ವಾsರ್ಜುನಃ ಸಂಖೇ ರಥೋಪಸ್ಥ ಉಪಾವಿಶತ್

ವಿಸೃಜ್ಯ ಸಶರಂ ಚಾಪಂ ಶೋಕಸಂವಿಗ್ನಮಾನಸಃ ೪೭

saṃjaya uvāca |

evamuktvāsrjunaḥ saṃkhe rathopastha upāviśat |

visṛjya saśaraṃ cāpaṃ śokasaṃvignamānasaḥ ||47||

Sloka 1.47 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Sloka 1:47

Gist of the sloka:

Sanjaya said: Right in the battlefield, Arjuna kept aside his bow and arrows and sat down in the middle of his chariot.

Explanation:

Standing and speaking in the chariot for this long, Arjuna sat down in his chariot after discarding his bow and arrow. The mental confusion affected his physical body and Arjuna was unable to stand.

Arjuna by now had completely poured out his feelings and thoughts to Lord Krishna.

Before proceeding to the next chapter, let us first discuss few questions which we might have.

Q1> How did in the middle of the battlefield Lord Krishna and Arjuna spent so much time that they had a conversation of over 700 slokas? What were rest of the people doing at the time? How long did it take them to have the conversation?

We need to first understand some of the rules guiding the war. One was not supposed to start the fight until the opposite party was also ready. One could only fight with another having similar weapons and status. Which meant, armies would wait until Arjuna was ready.

Arjuna was regarded even before the war as one the great experts in relation to various dharmas, books and sacred knowledge. This aspect is mentioned in the earlier parts of Mahabharatha. Lord Krishna is the universal lord. Conversation between them would not necessarily happen using the 700 slokas which we now have. They would have had the conversation in crisp and in short form.

The Gita which we now have is the expanded form of that conversation given to us as a conversation between Sanjaya and Emperor Dhitrarastra, as written down for our benefit by sage Veda Vyasa. Even so, we need thousands of pages of commentary about Gita to give us that little bit of knowledge and wisdom.

Q2> Why was Lord Krishna instructing Arjuna instead of his elder brother Bheema?

The answer to this question is very easy. You give the medicine to those who need it, not to their elders or healthy. Similar is the case here. Arjuna needed help and guidance not Bheema.

--

ಇತಿ ಪ್ರಥಮೋsಧ್ಯಾಯಃ

ಮೊದಲನೇ ಅಧ್ಯಾಯ ಮುಗಿಯಿತು.

iti prathamosdhyāyaḥ

modalane adhyāya mugiyitu.

ಅಧ್ಯಾಯ ಎರಡು

Chapter 2

Lord Krishna advice to Arjuna who had collapsed inside the chariot starts in chapter 2. This chapter gives a bird’s eye view of the entire Gita and is the gist of Gita. Sage Vyasa has captured the entire intent of the Gita in a condensed form in this chapter. Expansion of this condensed version is what we can see in the rest of 16 chapters.

ಸಂಜಯ ಉವಾಚ

ತಂ ತಥಾ ಕೃಪಯಾSSವಿಷ್ಟಮಶ್ರುಪೂರ್ಣಾಕುಲೇಕ್ಷಣಮ್ ।

ವಿಷೀದಂತಮಿದಂ ವಾಕ್ಯಮುವಾಚ ಮಧುಸೂದನಃ ॥೧

Sloka 2.1 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannaje Govindacharya)

sajaya uvāca |

ta tathā kpayāSSviṣṭamaśrupūrṇākulekaam |

viṣīdatamida vākyamuvāca madhusūdana ||1||

Sloka 2.1 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

Sanjaya said: seeing Arjuna with tears filled eyes and distressed, Lord Krishna [Madhusudhana] then spoke as follows.

Explanation:

Arjuna worried about the destruction caused by the war on the entire society was filled with great emotions. His eyes were filled with tears fearing the result of the war. He was wrapped in ignorance and had used every wit he knew of, to stop the war and subsequent destruction.

This state of Arjun was not normal and rather was temporary in nature clouding his intellect. Lord Krishna had to give a shock therapy to get Arjuna out of this mode. Which we see in the following verses.

 ಭಗವಾನುವಾಚ ।

ಕುತಸ್ತ್ವಾ ಕಶ್ಮಲಮಿದಂ ವಿಷಮೇ ಸಮುಪಸ್ಥಿತಮ್ ।

ಅನಾರ್ಯಜುಷ್ಟಮಸ್ವರ್ಗ್ಯಮಕೀರ್ತಿಕರಮರ್ಜುನ ॥೨॥

Sloka 2.2 and 2.3 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannaje Govindacharya)

bhagavānuvāca |

kutastvā kaśmalamida viame samupasthitam |

anāryajuṣṭamasvargyamakīrtikaramarjuna ||2||

Sloka 2.2 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

Lord Krishna spoke: Arjuna, why are you in this situation, which the wise men would not approve of and neither would it give you a place in the Heavens? This would destroy your name and fame. Why has this sense of ignorance/impurities covered you?

Explanation:

Lord Krishna does not address any of Arjuna’s various arguments as they were all clouded with emotion rather than real knowledge. By scolding Arjuna, Lord Krishna removes any iota of expectation that Arjuna might have had in terms of obtaining any sympathy from the Lord.

Lord Krishna continues. He challenges Arjuna as where did he learn to think like this [defeatism]? How did this happen? When the war is about to begin, when you should be ready to get into the battle, why are you thinking like this?

Arya’s never think like this. By thinking along this line, you are about to lose all the fame [as a great warrior and thinker] on the earth and no place in the heaven. You would be considered as a coward not as the greatest warrior. You will neither get comforts here nor in heaven.

Wise men, elders etc., would never allow for such thinking.

Arya here does not denote any particular community of people, rather represents those who have earned their place due their extra ordinary knowledge and wisdom. It’s a respectful term applied to those who have earned it.

 ಕ್ಲೈಬ್ಯಂ ಮಾಸ್ಮಗಮಃ ಪಾರ್ಥ ನೈತತ್ ತ್ವಯ್ಯುಪಪದ್ಯತೇ

ಕ್ಷುದ್ರಂ ಹೃದಯದೌರ್ಬಲ್ಯಂ ತ್ಯಕ್ತ್ವೋತ್ತಿಷ್ಠ ಪರಂತಪ

klaibya māsmagama pārtha naitat tvayyupapadyate |

kudra hdayadaurbalya tyaktvottiṣṭha paratapa ||3||

Sloka 2.3 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

Partha, do become a coward/impotent, is not for you. As a warrior like you, who put fear in the enemy hearts, remove the fear from your own heart and get up.

Explanation:

Continuing his shock therapy, Lord Krishna continues to motivate Arjuna by indicating he was not expecting Arjuna to be a coward. He asks Arjuna to throw away this layer of ignorance covering him and asks him to get up as the great warrior he is known to be.

The question arises as to why Lord Krishna was intent on the war? Knowing the destruction which follows the war.

If we analyse the thinking behind Lord Krishna intent on the war, we can easily see that the destruction of the society and vast majority of them would happen, when they come under the unjust evil ruler like Duryodhana. Whereas the war would only cause a small percentage of destruction but remove such evil ruler and his supporters protecting the majority of the society from harm.

Duryodhana who was a atathayi by committing all kinds of crimes including disrobing his own sister-in-law would have certainly used the same crimes against the society especially when there was none to protect them from such an evil group of persons. All such evil would have certainly amplified multiple times with a free hand to Duryodhana. This would have completely destroyed the society beyond all repairs.

Lord Krishna was looking at the society at large and not necessarily from the relationship or friendship perspective. It is therefore absolute necessary that one raise his voice against such evil irrespective of winnability or defeat. A lesson for all of us. Turning away from such situation is not an option as per Lord.

Lord Krishna gives a completely different and most appropriate definition of what is truth, what is dharma and concept or thoughts behind actions.

We were all told that saying the things as it is, is the truth. Lord Krishna tells what helps the society is the truth and what causes destruction to the society is falsehood. If by causing a small himsa [pain] it causes a larger benefit in stopping greater Himsa, than it is acceptable. A small Himsa preventing or establishing larger longer term ahimsa [non-cruelty/pain] is acceptable. Killing of a tiger which is attacking the village every day is much better than allowing it to continue on the same path causing greater pain for a longer duration. If a war establishes peace for a longer term and gives society some peace, then such a war is preferable. That which causes peace and safety to good people is truth. It is therefore necessary to understand the intent behind every action before judging it on results alone, rather than with just the limited view of action itself.

ಅರ್ಜುನ ಉವಾಚ ।

ಕಥಂ ಭೀಷ್ಮಮಹಂ ಸಂಖೇ ದ್ರೋಣಂ ಚ ಮಧುಸೂದನ

ಇಷುಭಿಃ ಪ್ರತಿಯೋತ್ಸ್ಯಾಮಿ ಪೂಜಾರ್ಹಾವರಿಸೂದನ

Sloka 2.4 to 2.10 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannaje Govindacharya)

arjuna uvāca |

katha bhīṣmamaha sakhe droa ca madhusūdana |

iubhi pratiyotsyāmi pūjārhāvarisūdana ||4||

Sloka 2.4 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

Arjuna spoke. O Madhusudhana, how can I kill Bheeshmacharya, Drona who are worthy of worship through my arrows in this battlefield?

Explanation:

Seeing Lord Krishna, having a smiling face and the way Lord replied to him, Arjuna undergoes a [tone] change, in the direction of surrender to Lord.

Arjuna is indicating that Bheeshmacharya is the grand sire of the clan and seen as Raja rishi and whereas Dronacharya is renowned teacher and considered as Maha rishi of the times. Given their exalted status, Arjuna is indicating he cannot kill them in the battle.

Arjuna invokes the name of Madhusudhana. It means among many other, one who has killed the daemon Madhu. Madhu means desires especially physical in nature. Arjuna is trying to say, how come you who have killed such a daemon, now want me to kill such pious gentlemen. Killing pious persons is not the intent of your avatar.

ಗುರೂನಹತ್ವಾ ಹಿ ಮಹಾನುಭಾವಾನ್ ಶ್ರೇಯೋ ಭೋಕ್ತುಂ ಭೈಕ್ಷ್ಯಮಪೀಹ ಲೋಕೇ

ಹತ್ವಾSರ್ಥಕಾಮಾಂಸ್ತು ಗುರೂನಿಹೈವ ಭುಂಜೀಯ ಭೋಗಾನ್ ರುಧಿರಪ್ರದಿಗ್ಧಾನ್

gurūnahatvā hi mahānubhāvān śreyo bhoktu bhaikyamapīha loke |

hatvāSrthakāmāṃstu gurūnihaiva bhujīya bhogān rudhirapradigdhān ||5||

Sloka 2.5 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

Arjuna continuing, indicates that instead of killing such pious souls, it’s better to be a beggar in the same land. How can one enjoy the comforts, when those have been obtained by spilling the blood of such souls?

Explanation:

Arjuna tries to use his logic to indicate it’s much better to beg and live rather than obtain comforts which has been paid by the price of blood of these pious souls. These souls have rejected the throne due their wisdom and what would we gain by obtaining such a throne? They have due to their obligation towards the throne and food that Duryodhana has provided them, are now fighting for Duryodhana.

 ನ ಚೈತದ್ ವಿದ್ಮಃ ಕತರನ್ನೋ ಗರೀಯೋ ಯದ್ ವಾ ಜಯೇಮ ಯದಿ ವಾ ನೋ ಜಯೇಯುಃ

ಯಾನೇವ ಹತ್ವಾ ನ ಜಿಜೀವಿಷಾಮಸ್ತೇSವಸ್ಥಿತಾಃ ಪ್ರಮುಖೇ ಧಾರ್ತರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಾಃ

na caitad vidma kataranno garīyo yad vā jayema yadi vā no jayeyu |

yāneva hatvā na jijīviṣāmasteSvasthitāḥ pramukhe dhārtarāṣṭrāḥ ||6||

Sloka 2.6 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

I am unable to understand what is in our interest. To win or to lose? Or they winning over us? Those, whom we do not wish to kill and live are themselves aligned in front of us for fighting us.

Explanation:

Arjuna respecting Dhitrarastra as his paternal uncle and knowing the intense longing he has for his own sons starting with Duryodhana, indicates he is not ready to fight the Kauravas.

So far, Arjuna who was raising various reasons not to fight, is now slowly seeking Lord Krishna advice. More specifically asking if fighting the war and winning is more important than to fighting the seniors of the clan etc., He has also lost the intense desire he had earlier to win the war. He opens up in front of the Lord.

 ಕಾರ್ಪಣ್ಯದೋಷೋಪಹತಸ್ವಭಾವಃ ಪೃಚ್ಛಾಮಿ ತ್ವಾ ಧರ್ಮಸಮ್ಮೂಢಚೇತಾಃ

ಯಚ್ಛ್ರೇಯಃ ಸ್ಯಾನ್ನಿಶ್ಚಿತಂ ಬ್ರೂಹಿ ತನ್ಮೇ ಶಿಷ್ಯಸ್ತೇSಹಂ ಶಾಧಿ ಮಾಂ ತ್ವಾಮ್ ಪ್ರಪನ್ನಮ್

kārpayadoopahatasvabhāva pcchāmi tvā dharmasammūḍhacetāḥ |

yacchreya syānniścita brūhi tanme śiyasteSha śādhi māṃ tvām prapannam ||7||

Sloka 2.7 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

Confused and weakened, [Arjuna says] my mind is clouded and I am unable to think properly. Please tell me what is the right path of dharma. You who is the epitome of Dharma, I am seeking your guidance, I am surrendering to you. Please show me the way.

Explanation:

I am filled with confusion. I have lost the sense of balance in thinking what is right according to dharma and what is not. I am unable to decide if war is required or not. I am unable to decide what is in my interest and what is not.

I am your disciple and have fully surrendered to you. Please guide me.

Until now Arjuna who has talking like a all-knowing knowledgeable wise man, realizes his limits and surrenders to the Lord. At this point Lord takes the ownership and starts guiding.

ನಹಿ ಪ್ರಪಶ್ಯಾಮಿ ಮಮಾಪನುದ್ಯಾದ್ ಯಚ್ಛೋಕಮುಚ್ಛೋಷಣಮಿಂದ್ರಿಯಾಣಾಮ್

ಅವಾಪ್ಯ ಭೂಮಾವಸಪತ್ನಮೃದ್ಧಂ ರಾಜ್ಯಂ ಸುರಾಣಾಮಪಿ ಚಾSಧಿಪತ್ಯಮ್

nahi prapaśyāmi mamāpanudyād yacchokamucchoaamidriyāṇām |

avāpya bhūmāvasapatnamddha rājya surāṇāmapi cāSdhipatyam ||8||

Sloka 2.8 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

This confusion and grief has overwhelmed my senses. I would be unable to overcome them even if the I am given sovereignty of a kingdom or a position like a demi-God of heaven.

Explanation:

Arjuna says: My senses have been dried up and I am unable find a way out of this. I would be unable to overcome this grief even if I have sovereignty over heaven or a large kingdom on earth.

 ಸಂಜಯ ಉವಾಚ ।

ಏವಮುಕ್ತ್ವಾ ಹೃಷೀಕೇಶಂ ಗುಡಾಕೇಶಃ ಪರಂತಪಃ

ನ ಯೋತ್ಸ್ಯ ಇತಿ ಗೋವಿಂದಮುಕ್ತ್ವಾ ತೂಷ್ಣೀಂ ಬಭೂವ ಹ

sajaya uvāca |

evamuktvā hṛṣīkeśa guḍākeśa paratapa |

na yotsya iti govidamuktvā tūṣṇīṃ babhūva ha ||9||

Sloka 2.9 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

Sanjaya said: One who has conquered sleep [Gudakesha], Arjuna spoke to Govinda indicating he would not fight and became silent.

Explanation:

Sanjaya who was reporting to Dhitrarastra about the scene at the battlefield indicated that Arjuna who had conquered sleep, spoke to the universal lord who controls all our senses as follows: I will not fight. Arjuna then went silent.

 ತಮುವಾಚ ಹೃಷೀಕೇಶಃ ಪ್ರಹಸನ್ನಿವ ಭಾರತ

ಸೇನಯೋರುಭಯೋರ್ಮಧ್ಯೇ ವಿಷೀದಂತಮಿದಂ ವಚಃ  ೧೦

tamuvāca hṛṣīkeśa prahasanniva bhārata |

senayorubhayormadhye viṣīdatamida vaca  ||10||

Sloka 2.10 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

Stationed in between the armies, to the King in the lineage of Bharatha dynasty, Lord Krishna with a smile on his face thus spoke to Arjuna.

Explanation:

Arjuna had completely surrendered himself to the Lord. He had surrendered bodily, through his mind and in thoughts. He has controlled the emotions and realized he needs guidance and was willing to take such a guidance.

One should therefore remove their ego and surrender to the Lord. When a person surrenders himself to the Lord in such a fashion, Lord certainly helps and guides them. This is a lesson for all of us to obtain His grace.

 ಭಗವಾನುವಾಚ

ಅಶೋಚ್ಯಾನನ್ವಶೋಚಸ್ತ್ವಂ ಪ್ರಜ್ಞಾವಾದಾಂಶ್ಚ ಭಾಷಸೇ |

ಗತಾಸೂನಗತಾಸೂಂಶ್ಚ ನಾನುಶೋಚಂತಿ ಪಂಡಿತಾಃ  ೧೧

Sloka 2.11 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannaje Govindacharya)

bhagavānuvāca |

aśocyānanvaśocastva prajñāvādāṃśca bhāṣase |

gatāsūnagatāsūṃśca nānuśocati paṃḍitāḥ  ||11||

Sloka 2.11 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

Lord spoke: You are crying for them for whose sake one should not cry. You are speaking irresponsibly with a belief as though you are a knowledgeable and a wise person. Those who are wise, never lament for living or dead.

Explanation:

Lord Krishna puts a verbal mirror to show Arjuna how foolish are his thoughts. He also brings down Arjuna’s ego by indicating he is not a knowledgeable person either.

The root cause of Arjuna’s grief is the fact that some seniors would die, some evil people might survive and therefore fear. This fear is due to lack of correct knowledge. Lord Krishna therefore sets right the knowledge factor.

Lord Krishna therefore indicates that the words spoken by Arjuna are not the same words spoken by a knowledgeable person. Wise men would have very clearly understood the concept of death, birth and its relationship with soul. He clearly indicates to Arjuna that Arjuna is speaking, assuming his words are the universal truth but when in fact, they are actually not.

Lord Krishna therefore educates Arjuna on the truth which is universal and never changing. Arjuna knowledge was limited to this planet whereas the Lord was giving him the different perspective which is universal and eternal.

Question might arise, should one not fall into grief if seniors like Bheeshmacharya and Dronacharya were to die. To decide on the right way, we first need to understand what exactly is death and birth. Once we too understand the universal truth about this aspect, we too will understand why Arjuna’s words were irrelevant.

Individual soul is alive since time immemorial [Sanathana]. Its birth did not begin with being present in the body nor its death after it leaves this body. It is similar to growing out of our clothes and dressing up with new ones. It is the cloth which was discarded not us. We don’t mourn the loss of the cloth and neither should we for loss of this ‘case/cage’ called body. One who has understood this, would have no fear about death.

Death is not fearsome. Birth is inevitable [due our prarabdha karmas]. Soul has no death. Soul has existed from beginning and will continue to do so.

Whereas the gross body made out of perishable materials is meant to deteriorate and destroy itself. Such an event when the body merges back with the environment/prakruthi is death [of the body]. One should therefore should not cry for what is inevitable in the cycle of prakruthi. Neither should one cry for soul as its always present and alive.

 ನತ್ವೇವಾಹಂ ಜಾತು ನಾSಸಂ ನ ತ್ವಂ ನೇಮೇ ಜನಾಧಿಪಾಃ ।

ನಚೈವ ನ ಭವಿಷ್ಯಾಮಃ ಸರ್ವೇ ವಯಮತಃ ಪರಮ್ ೧೨॥

Sloka 2.12 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannaje Govindacharya)

natvevāha jātu nāSsa na tva neme janādhipāḥ |

nacaiva na bhaviyāma sarve vayamata param ||12||

Sloka 2.12 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

I was not in a state of non-existence. So is yourself and these kings. Even in future we would never cease to exist.

Explanation:

Lord Krishna is very clearly indicating to Arjuna that all [souls] existed before and will continue to do so ever after. They also continue to be present now. All souls are immortal.

Soul is not destructible and whereas body is meant to be destroyed.

Each soul has its own ‘swabhava’ which is attached to itself. It cannot be changed or modified. Lord rather seeds the universe with these souls and allows them to grow/evolve according to their basic nature/swabhava.

He is like a farmer who plants seeds into the land. Farmer allows each seed to grow according to its nature. He only nurtures them, while not showing any partiality. While each soul has its individualistic character, each is different from each other. This is the reason there is so much variety in the world. It is true to the minutest level wherein each leaf in the same tree is different from each.

 ದೇಹಿನೋSಸ್ಮಿನ್ ಯಥಾ ದೇಹೇ ಕೌಮಾರಂ ಯೌವನಂ ಜರಾ ।

ತಥಾ ದೇಹಾಂತರಪ್ರಾಪ್ತಿರ್ಧೀರಸ್ತತ್ರ ನ ಮುಹ್ಯತಿ ೧೩॥

Sloka 2.13 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannaje Govindacharya)

dehinoSsmin yathā dehe kaumāra yauvana jarā |

tathā dehāṃtaraprāptirdhīrastatra na muhyati ||13||

Sloka 2.13 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

Soul which is present in this body, encounters the body as it changes from birth, youth, age and finally death. One who understands this overcomes the fear of death.

Explanation:

Once the body is destroyed, the soul is not. It continues ahead. Soul which has seen the changes to the body since birth should realize that change is natural and so is death. Soul continues to obtain a new body and starts the bodily journey again.

The fear is due to lack of right knowledge regarding this transmigration of the soul and lack of knowledge about the future body that the soul might get. One who has this knowledge would never fear death for he knows that soul continues to exist.

Attachment [abhimana] causes the fear.

 ಮಾತ್ರಾಸ್ಪರ್ಶಾಸ್ತು ಕೌಂತೇಯ  ಶೀತೋಷ್ಣಸುಖದುಃಖದಾಃ ।

ಆಗಮಾಪಾಯಿನೋನಿತ್ಯಾಸ್ತಾಂಸ್ತಿತಿಕ್ಷಸ್ವ ಭಾರತ ॥೧೪

Sloka 2.14 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannaje Govindacharya)

mātrāsparśāstu kauteya  śītoṣṇasukhadukhadāḥ |

āgamāpāyinonityāstāṃstitikasva bhārata ||14||

Sloka 2.14 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

O Kauntaeya; it’s the senses which gives us the sense of hot and cold; happiness and sadness. These sensations changes and does not stay on forever. O Bharatha learn to tolerate them.

Explanation:

It’s through our senses that we feel, smell, touch and enjoy/suffer the various ups and downs like hot/cold, happiness/sadness etc., Similarly cold sensation in winter would cause grief whereas in summer it might cause pleasure.

These sense reactions are transitory and what feels good to one might mean exactly opposite to another person. Once the death of a near one happens the sadness is due to the fact that we can no longer sense them in their physical bodies to which we have got used to. We no longer can see, talk, sit down with them etc., That loss of sensation causes the grief. No knowing what is in store for future after the death causes one to feel the fear – thereby death.

Higher the attachment towards the senses, greater is the loss. One does not feel this during sleep [without dream] as there is no sense of belonging to the gross body; even though the senses are still in touch with material things. This happens only during the state of wakefulness and dream.

Kauntaeya means son of Kunti. Kunti was known to have suffered various hardships throughout her life, but she never got disheartened. Rather she prayed to Lord to give her even more hardships as it would enable her to remember the Lord even more.

Being the son of such a illustrious mother, Arjuna was being reminded he needs to stay firm and stand up for the fight.

Bharatha indicating, Arjuna was a descended from the dynasty of Bharatha, was again being reminded that he needs to show more courage and stand up.

ಯಂ ಹಿ ನ ವ್ಯಥಯಂತ್ಯೇತೇ ಪುರುಷಂ ಪುರುಷರ್ಷಭ

ಸಮದುಃಖಸುಖಂ ಧೀರಂ ಸೋSಮೃತತ್ವಾಯ ಕಲ್ಪತೇ  ೧೫

Sloka 2.15 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannaje Govindacharya)

ya hi na vyathayatyete purua puruarabha |

samadukhasukha dhīra soSmtatvāya kalpate  ||15||

Sloka 2.15 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

O brave lion among the men, one whose body does not recognize these opposite conditions, he can visualize both happiness and sadness on equal footing. He is a brave person who will reach the place of non-death/mukthi [emancipation].

Explanation:

Lord Krishna continues. One who knows how to treat both sadness and happiness on equal basis reaches the place where rebirth is not an option. It requires someone with great deal of maturity and knowledge to overcome this duality.

The word ‘purusha’ has been used here. The word generally used to refer to as a ‘male’ but real meaning is completely different. One [species] who has fully formed and functional body is known as ‘purusha’ meaning human beings of both sexes.

The real ‘purusha’ actually meaning the Lord himself. It also means one who strives to learn about the Lord, the reasons behind for obtaining the various duality like happiness and sadness.

This purusha body has been given to us so that we can appropriately use it to gain adequate knowledge, wisdom and also help fellow humans and other living species in this world.

Duality of the sensations is a natural phenomenon and given by the Lord according our karmas. One should therefore be mature enough to accept the things as it happens with a firm belief that Lord knows what we need and at what time. Such a brave person is ‘purusha’ and elevates himself towards the Lord.

Lord is like a mother who knows exactly what kind and what level of punishment is to be given to the child to make it correct itself and grow up being a better person. Mother would never exceed her punishment, knowing fully the capability of the child.

Sadness gives us real lesson as it teaches us things which we can never learn from happiness. Lord therefore gives us lessons by giving us difficulties. It shows his immense kindness. Such knowledge gives us the insight to Lord and makes us more mature. One who has learnt such lessons and has obtained knowledge, would no longer need to take birth again and again but rather reaches the place of immortality. ನಾಸತೋ ವಿದ್ಯತೇ [S]ಭಾವೋ ನಾಭಾವೋ ವಿದ್ಯತೇ ಸತಃ

ಉಭಯೋರಪಿ ದೃಷ್ಟೋSನ್ತಸ್ತ್ವನಯೋಸ್ತತ್ತ್ವದರ್ಶಿಭಿಃ  ೧೬

Sloka 2.16 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannaje Govindacharya)

nāsato vidyate [S]bhāvo nābhāvo vidyate sata |

ubhayorapi dṛṣṭoSntastvanayostattvadarśibhi  ||16||

Sloka 2.16 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

Neither the Lord nor Prakruthi has end. One does not get good rewards by doing bad things and one does not get bad things by doing good things. One who understands this truth has seen.

Explanation:

Lord Krishna is clearly indicating that doing good deeds one does not suffer. The reasoning behind is to assure Arjuna that during war in case he has to kill seniors than he should remember that he is fighting for the righteousness and should not fear going to hell or suffer from sins.

One should therefore should not fear doing good deeds and those who go in the part of evil will never get permanent happiness. It might appear that they [evil] might have trumped but it would be short term and they would fall into hell subsequently. This is the real ultimate truth that various rishi’s have discovered.

The verse can also be interpreted as follows. Neither prakruthi [Lakshmi] nor purusha [Lord] are ever nonexistent. They are ever present. So is the case of the soul who is dependent upon them. As such, this gross body made up of the 5 primary elements [earth, water, fire, air and openness(sky)] is a temporary place of stay and one should not feel excessively attached to it.

 ಅವಿನಾಶಿ ತು ತದ್ ವಿದ್ಧಿಯೇನ ಸರ್ವಮಿದಂ ತತಮ್

ವಿನಾಶಮವ್ಯಯಸ್ಯಾಸ್ಯ ನ ಕಶ್ಚಿತ್ ಕರ್ತುಮರ್ಹತಿ ॥೧೭

Sloka 2.17 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannaje Govindacharya)

avināśi tu tad viddhiyena sarvamida tatam |

vināśamavyayasyāsya na kaścit kartumarhati ||17||

Sloka 2.17 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

That which has enveloped this entire universe, is ceaseless. One who is ceaseless is not easily approachable.

Explanation:

One which is present everywhere in the universe has no destruction anytime. There is sub universe [akshara] which made of letters [& sounds] starting from letter “Aa” till “sha”. Covering all the 51 letters of Sanskrit. All sounds, words in the entire universe is made from using these letters. Akshara is again is non-destructible.

The Vedas made of akshara, which is glorifying the Lord is also non-destructible.

Therefore Bhagawan [Lord Krishna], prakruthi [akshara], Vedas along with the individual soul are non-destructible.

Bhagawan has 4 characteristics. They are -;

  1. non-destruction of Swaroopa [unique characteristics which are complete, infinite and without blemish],
  2. non-destruction of body [His body itself is made of pure complete knowledge],
  3. no blemish of grief or sadness
  4. incompleteness in any form or manner

He is never encounters destruction or blemish with time, country, qualities or character. He is present at all points of the universe at all times and hence known as ‘anantha’.

 ಅಂತವಂತ ಇಮೇ ದೇಹಾ ನಿತ್ಯಸ್ಯೋಕ್ತಾಃ ಶರೀರಿಣಃ ।

ಅನಾಶಿನೋSಪ್ರಮೇಯಸ್ಯ ತಸ್ಮಾದ್ ಯುಧ್ಯಸ್ವ ಭಾರತ ೧೮

Sloka 2.18 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannaje Govindacharya)

atavata ime dehā nityasyoktāḥ śarīria |

anāśinoSprameyasya tasmād yudhyasva bhārata ||18||

Sloka 2.18 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

The immortal soul is in this mortal body. He has no destruction. He is the reflection of the omnipresent Lord. O Bharatha, in the name of this imperishable Lord, fight.

Explanation:

The gross body is perishable. Soul which is in it is not. From the eyes of this gross body, we can only view the gross world. This soul is reflection of the omnipresent indestructible Lord and hence the Soul also does not perish.

Lord Krishna guides Arjuna by indicating to him, that Arjuna should fight the war not with the intention of obtaining the kingdom nor for the cause of Duryodhana; but with the intention that this task of fighting the war is but a form of worship to the universal Lord.

We too should perform our everyday tasks in the similar form. This body was given to us by the Lord and it belongs to Him alone. We are but temporary residents given an opportunity to use this body to worship the Lord and obtain his grace.

With his mindset, we should offer our services to Him alone. When this body collapses, we should not get disturbed as it was given to us for a certain time and purpose and it has been taken back. Grief regarding this would be unnecessary.

 ಯ ಏನಂ ವೇತ್ತಿ ಹಂತಾರಂ  ಯಶ್ಚೈನಂ ಮನ್ಯತೇ ಹತಮ್

ಉಭೌ ತೌ ನ ವಿಜಾನೀತೋ ನಾಯಂ ಹಂತಿ ನ ಹನ್ಯತೇ  ೧೯

Sloka 2.19 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannaje Govindacharya)

ya ena vetti hatāra  yaścaina manyate hatam |

ubhau tau na vijānīto nāya hati na hanyate  ||19||

Sloka 2.19 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

Who thinks that person murdered another and other got murdered are both ignorant. One cannot kill or get killed.

Explanation:

Those who believe that a person was murdered/murderer or the being was destroyed does not have real knowledge. No wise men believe so.

The reason being, soul cannot be murdered nor can be killed. What we see as being murdered or destroyed is the gross body not the soul.

Even the soul residing in the body does not have the freedom to die or get murdered. Every event in the universe happens because Lord wishes so and not because of individual soul’s intent.

The reason Lord explains this aspect is because Arjuna thinks he can kill Kauravas in the battle. Without Lord’s will, nothing happens in the universe irrespective of soul intending to do so.

 ನ ಜಾಯತೇ ಮ್ರಿಯತೇ ವಾ ಕದಾಚಿತ್ ನಾ[S]ಯಂ ಭೂತ್ವಾ ಭವಿತಾ ವಾ ನ ಭೂಯಃ ।

ಅಜೋ ನಿತ್ಯಃ ಶಾಶ್ವತೋSಯಂ ಪುರಾಣೋ ನ ಹನ್ಯತೇ ಹನ್ಯಮಾನೇ ಶರೀರೇ ॥೨೦॥

Sloka 2.20 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannaje Govindacharya)

na jāyate mriyate vā kadācit nā[S]ya bhūtvā bhavitā vā na bhūya |

ajo nitya śāśvatoSya purāṇo na hanyate hanyamāne śarīre ||20||

Sloka 2.20 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

This soul has no birth, death or changes. The soul is the reflection of the Lord, who has no birth, death nor change. Same with the soul. Soul which migrates from body to body, will not die even when the body dies.

Explanation:

Lord Krishna is explaining about the jeeva-swaroopa. This jeeva-swaroopa does not have birth, death nor does it changes or destroyed. It remains always in a steady state. The reaon being the individual soul is a reflection of the supreme Lord. Lord has no birth, death nor does He change. Being the reflection of such a Lord, individual soul also behaves in similar manner. Even when the body changes from birth to birth the soul and its swabhava never changes. The gross body does age but not the soul. Its behavious or qualities due to the influence of the 3 gunas and prabhava might change but its swabhavana never changes. A soul in one life might be a atheist and in the next might be a believer.

 ವೇದಾವಿನಾಶಿನಂ ನಿತ್ಯಂ ಯ ಏನಮಜಮವ್ಯಯಮ್

ಕಥಂ ಸ ಪುರುಷಃ ಪಾರ್ಥ ಕಂ ಘಾತಯತಿ ಹಂತಿ ಕಮ್ ೨೧॥

Sloka 2.21 and 2.22 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannaje Govindacharya)

vedāvināśina nitya ya enamajamavyayam |

katha sa purua pārtha ka ghātayati hati kam ||21||

Sloka 2.21 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

O Partha. Soul which has neither birth nor death; nor has any destruction at any time. When that is the case, who and how can such a soul be destroyed?

Explanation:

One who understands that - soul which is unblemished, every lasting, unchanging and also its Swaroopa; how can one kill such a person[soul]? By its very nature soul cannot be destroyed and birth/deaths happen due to Lord will, how can one get killed or kill another? We should only think about the universal force which is making the things happen.

One knows by now that the soul has neither birth/death. At the same time, we see birth and deaths in our regular life. How can one understand this contradiction? Lord Krishna explains this in the succeeding verses.

ವಾಸಾಂಸಿ ಜೀರ್ಣಾನಿ ಯಥಾ ವಿಹಾಯ ನವಾನಿ ಗೃಹ್ಣಾತಿ ನರೋSಪರಾಣಿ ।

ತಥಾ ಶರೀರಾಣಿ ವಿಹಾಯ ಜೀರ್ಣಾನ್ಯನ್ಯಾನಿ ಸಂಯಾತಿ ನವಾನಿ ದೇಹೀ॥೨೨॥

vāsāṃsi jīrṇāni yathā vihāya navāni ghṇāti naroSparāṇi |

tathā śarīrāṇi vihāya jīrṇānyanyāni sayāti navāni dehī||22||

Sloka 2.22 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

Like a person who discards his old clothes and wears a new one, so does the soul discards the old body and gets into a new one.

Explanation:

Similar to discarding the old cloth, soul discards the body. Like a mother determines when and what a child should wear, Lord decides when and what the soul should wear and when it should remove it. The child has no choice similar to soul. The child or the soul itself has no say in this matter

Happiness is in accepting the reality and going along with it.

Certain very advanced soul do get to determine what body and when they wish to leave the body. That again is not at their sole discretion but with Lord permission.

Examples of that are plenty in the puranic lore. The same is also mentioned in the recent books, [Living with Himalayan Masters by Swami Rama] wherein the Swami Rama’s guru demonstrated these aspects and have been documented. Lesser mortals cannot do the same.

The universal truth remains that the soul has no death nor birth. Appearance in the body is birth and disappearance from the gross body is death. Soul itself continues to exist.

Individual soul characteristic [Swaroopa] never changes. Does it mean it cannot be destroyed? We shall soon know the answer in the next few verses.

 ನೈನಂ ಛಿಂದಂತಿ  ಶಸ್ತ್ರಾಣಿ ನೈನಂ ದಹತಿ ಪಾವಕಃ | 

ನಚೈನಂ ಕ್ಲೇದಯಂತ್ಯಾಪೋ ನ ಶೋಷಯತಿ ಮಾರುತಃ ೨೩॥

Sloka 2.23 to 2.25 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannaje Govindacharya)

naina chidati  śastrāṇi naina dahati pāvaka

nacaina kledayatyāpo na śoayati māruta ||23||

Sloka 2.23 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

The soul can never be cut [or destroyed] by weapons, fire cannot burn it, water cannot soak it and air cannot dry it.

Explanation:

For destroying anything there are only 4 means. Earth [metals from it, used for weapons], water [through decomposition], nor the fire [can burn it to ashes] or air [which can dry it].

Rishi’s estimate the soul size to be size of 1/10,000th of the smallest hair on horse tail.

Certain other philosophies try to explain the size of soul to be flexible occupying the entire body where it is resident. This cannot explain among other things how it can shrink in case it gets a body of a minute organism in its next life.

If one realizes that the soul is a bright light of knowledge, then like a bulb which though present in a corner of the room can illuminate the entire area, soul too resident near the heart can spread its energy through the body irrespective of its size [elephant, whale to amoeba] without having to keep re-sizing itself every time it changes body.

The great sages’ explanation of the size of the soul perfectly explains it. This is as per Vedas too.

The next question would be, is there nothing which can ever physically destroy the soul?

ಅಚ್ಛೇದ್ಯೋSಯಮದಾಹ್ಯೋSಯಮಕ್ಲೇದ್ಯೋSಶೋಷ್ಯ ಏವ ಚ ।

ನಿತ್ಯಃ ಸರ್ವಗತಸ್ಥಾಣುರಚಲೋSಯಂ ಸನಾತನಃ ೨೪॥

acchedyoSyamadāhyoSyamakledyoSśoya eva ca |

nitya sarvagatasthāṇuracaloSya sanātana ||24||

Sloka 2.24 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

Lord explains, that the individual soul cannot be destroyed by any of the 4 methods available, like earth, water, fire and air. The soul is the reflection of the universal Lord who himself above all the 4 types of gross elements. Being such a reflection, soul is subject to Vedic rules, regulations and limits.

Explanation:

Individual soul can never be destroyed by anyone at any time. This is the absolute truth. The soul basic qualities/swabhava can never be changed and he is reflection of the Lord.

Lord himself is the sole intent of the Vedas and is permanent in his qualities, each of which is infinite and complete in all aspects. There is no blemishes nor are his qualities limited. They are in fact, infinite.

Soul being a reflection of the Lord is also similarly unchanging and existent forever. Soul being protected by the Lord need not fear death and destruction.

 ಅವ್ಯಕ್ತೋSಯಮಚಿಂತ್ಯೋSಯಮವಿಕಾರ್ಯೋSಯಮುಚ್ಯತೇ ।

ತಸ್ಮಾದೇವಂ ವಿದಿತ್ವೈನಂ ನಾನುಶೋಚಿತುಮರ್ಹಸಿ ೨೫

avyaktoSyamacityoSyamavikāryoSyamucyate |

tasmādeva viditvaina nānuśocitumarhasi ||25||

Sloka 2.25 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

The Vedas says that Lord is never changing, not visible and difficult to understand. Once you understand this fact, lamenting is not appropriate.

Explanation:

Lord is not visible and neither does the soul within the gross body. Due to which its very difficult to understand the nature of Lord and the soul. We do not know where we came from? Who are we?

The nature of Lord and soul is unchanging also. All this is beyond our normal thinking. Once we understand the truth about the nature of Lord and soul, to lament about the death is meaningless.

All mention of soul [Atma] refers to individual souls [not Lord’s] unless otherwise mentioned.

 ಅಥ ಚೈ ನಂ ನಿತ್ಯಜಾತಂ ನಿತ್ಯಂ ವಾ ಮನ್ಯಸೇ ಮೃತಮ್

ತಥಾSಪಿ ತ್ವಂ ಮಹಾಬಾಹೋ ನೈನಂ  ಶೋಚಿತುಮರ್ಹಸಿ ೨೬

Sloka 2.26 and 2.27 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannaje Govindacharya)

atha cai na nityajāta nitya vā manyase mtam |

tathāSpi tva mahābāho naina  śocitumarhasi ||26||

Sloka 2.26 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

O Great Warrior, even if you assume that the soul gets its birth and death through this gross body, lamenting for it is still meaningless.

Explanation:

If we leave out the Vedic knowledge and think at the worldly level, then soul has a birth with the body and death after the body falls. In which case to understand the birth and death is near impossible. For them the very nature of soul, is not required to explain the phenomenon. It just the body alive and dead. Why then would you lament, for the body is destined anyways to be destroyed?

You who have fought many great battles never thought of these things before. Why then do you have these doubts now?

May philosophies like Buddhism, modern biologist and material scientists think in similar lines. Their concept is that the various elements in the nature ‘somehow’ in the strange ‘co incidence’ come together and life automatically happens.

They are also unable to explain, how death happens in a body suddenly when its functioning with the death message reaching all the billions of cells in the body in a given instant.

These birth and deaths are happening on the Earth for eons and how many times [hundreds of billions of times] can such co incidence happen without explanation? How is this strange happening generated so many intelligent life forms, wellstructured to suit their individual environments, how can they also do complex reproduction of their own species all due to no external force guiding them?ಜಾತಸ್ಯ ಹಿ ಧ್ರುವೋ ಮೃತ್ಯುರ್ಧ್ರುವಂ ಜನ್ಮ ಮೃತಸ್ಯ ಚ

ತಸ್ಮಾದಪರಿಹಾರ್ಯೇSರ್ಥೇ ನ ತ್ವಂ ಶೋಚಿತುಮರ್ಹಸಿ ೨೭॥

jātasya hi dhruvo mtyurdhruva janma mtasya ca |

tasmādaparihāryeSrthe na tva śocitumarhasi ||27||

Sloka 2.27 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

For one who is born, death is certain. Those who have died, birth is certain. When this is the reality, why would you lament for something which is definite and unchangeable?

Explanation:

Birth/death, happiness/grief are like two sides of a coin. Without night, we will not have sunlight next. One follows the other in certainty.

To lament and fall into grief due to the inevitable events is not appropriate. One should therefore learn to understand and grow out of it.

So is the case of executing one’s duty. One should not fail to execute such duties.

One does not cry due to sunset, resulting in disappearance of the sun. For sun raises next day and none can stop this inevitable event. Similar should be case when our duty calls us.

 ಅವ್ಯಕ್ತಾದೀನಿ ಭೂತಾನಿ ವ್ಯಕ್ತಮಧ್ಯಾನಿ ಭಾರತ

ಅವ್ಯಕ್ತನಿಧನಾನ್ಯೇವ ತತ್ರ ಕಾ ಪರಿದೇವನಾ ೨೮

Sloka 2.28 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannaje Govindacharya)

avyaktādīni bhūtāni vyaktamadhyāni bhārata |

avyaktanidhanānyeva tatra kā paridevanā ||28||

Sloka 2.28 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

O descendant of the Bharatha dynasty, we do not know the roots of the living nor its highest point. We only know its middle. Why then lament?

Explanation:

The core of Arjuna’s grief was that he might have to kill his senior relatives. It was his attachment which caused the grief. Lord is trying to address this doubt of Arjuna.

Our relationship starts with the birth of the relative. We have no idea who that soul was before the birth and we have no clue after they leave the body. The attachment is therefore with the body and not necessarily with the soul.

The verse mentions this fact as a tree. We are not aware of their source before birth [root] and neither do we know the top.

When this is the reality, why then lament for the short attachment we might have with the gross body which is destined to destroy?

It does not mean than when we both are residents in different gross bodies, we should not show any love and affection. Rather it is only a caution to ensure we are not excessively attached the body/relationships which might prevent us from elevating ourselves with the knowledge of the nature of soul.

Simple thing being when the birth happens and when death happens, remember the Lord gave the gross body and took it away. Maintain equanimity at all times.

ಆಶ್ಚರ್ಯವತ್ ಪಶ್ಯತಿ ಕಶ್ಚಿದೇನಂ ಆಶ್ಚರ್ಯವದ್ ವದತಿ ತಥೈವ ಚಾನ್ಯಃ

ಆಶ್ಚರ್ಯವಚ್ಚೈನಮನ್ಯಃ ಶೃಣೋತಿ ಶ್ರುತ್ವಾSಪ್ಯೇನಂ ವೇದ ನಚೈವ ಕಶ್ಚಿತ್ ೨೯

Sloka 2.29 and 2.30 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannaje Govindacharya)

āścaryavat paśyati kaścidena āścaryavad vadati tathaiva cānya |

āścaryavaccainamanya śṛṇoti śrutvāSpyena veda nacaiva kaścit ||29||

Sloka 2.29 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

If anyone who understands this truth, then it’s an amazing event. Another, when he actually realizes it’s even more amazing. If the person is able tell the truth and another can understand it, then it increases the astonishment. Even then, there is none who can understand the Lord and soul completely.

Explanation:

This verse is about Lord and soul. Those who have actually viewed the Lord are rare. They who have done extreme karmas based on truth have got an opportunity to view the Lord, and they would only be astonished, beyond words. They would be unable to describe Him, for He is beyond words.

The universe itself is an astonishing creation. The Lord who created such a place would definitely be beyond astonishment. Therefore, those who have seen him would find it impossible to describe Him.

Even if they try to describe, then for the listeners it would be an astonishment. At the end Lord remains a mystery wrapped in astonishment.

So, would be the soul, who is a light [knowledge] and remains a mysterious thing. To fully describe would be a tough task, given that its brighter than sun but softer than moon rays.

On our own to understand Lord and the soul would be difficult and tough. Hence the need for guidance and who else than the Lord Krishna is the best position to do so. No one can ever know the Lord and soul better than the universal Lord himself.

 ದೇಹೀ ನಿತ್ಯಮವಧ್ಯೋSಯಂ ದೇಹೇ ಸರ್ವಸ್ಯ ಭಾರತ ।

ತಸ್ಮಾತ್ ಸರ್ವಾಣಿ ಭೂತಾನಿ ನ ತ್ವಂ ಶೋಚಿತುಮರ್ಹಸಿ ೩೦॥

dehī nityamavadhyoSya dehe sarvasya bhārata |

tasmāt sarvāṇi bhūtāni na tva śocitumarhasi ||30||

Sloka 2.30 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

O Bharatha, in all beings the soul cannot be killed [Lord himself guards the soul] therefore lamenting for its death is not appropriate.

Explanation:

The truth is, the soul residing in the body cannot be killed, but the body can be. One should therefore should not undergo grief for it. One cannot exit from the body on own will either. Nor can one, enter a body on its own will. Nor can one remain in the body forever. The actions are controlled by the Lord.

When the Lord is resident with the soul in the body it’s not appropriate to think otherwise about birth and death. Once a person understands this, birth or death becomes immaterial and death becomes a pleasurable event.

Few strange thoughts might appear in some. As there is no death, is it ok to go ahead and kill someone?

This thought process is not correct. The knowledge which we have gained so far is related to us on an individual level. We are living in a society and we are bound to follow the societal dharma [kula dharma] and not act against the very society.

Neither does the knowledge give us the right to utilize it for individual mischief, justifying it under the true knowledge. The knowledge so given is to elevate the soul towards the Lord. Actions misusing the knowledge would only lead us away from the Lord.

ಸ್ವಧರ್ಮಮಪಿ ಚಾವೇಕ್ಷ್ಯ ನ ವಿಕಂಪಿತುಮರ್ಹಸಿ ।

ಧರ್ಮ್ಯಾದ್ಧಿ ಯುದ್ಧಾಚ್ಛ್ರೇಯೋSನ್ಯತ್ ಕ್ಷತ್ರಿಯಸ್ಯ ನ ವಿದ್ಯತೇ ೩೧॥

Sloka 2.31 and 2.32 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannaje Govindacharya)

svadharmamapi cāvekya na vikapitumarhasi |

dharmyāddhi yuddhācchreyoSnyat katriyasya na vidyate ||31||

Sloka 2.31 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

Do not hesitate, for the primary duty of the kshatriya is to fight for dharma. When such an opportunity presents itself, one should not wait.

Explanation:

Sanathana dharma says, one should fight evil/adharma. Kshatriya dharma says anyone who has kshatriya lineage should stand up for righteousness and fight evil. Samaja [Kula] dharma says one should protect the common people from evil forces and if necessary stand up against it.

Arjuna being a kshatriya, a Gynani [knowledgeable person with awareness of Sanathana dharma] and being responsible as a protector of the society should do what all the three types of dharma indicates – fight the forces of evil for greater protection of the society.

Such an opportunity is rare and is eagerly sought for by kshatriyas. For right action during such time brings both fame and heaven, to the performer.

 ಯದೃಚ್ಛಯಾ ಚೋಪಪನ್ನಂ ಸ್ವರ್ಗದ್ವಾರಮಪಾವೃತಮ್ ।

ಸುಖಿನಃ ಕ್ಷತ್ರಿಯಾಃ ಪಾರ್ಥ ಲಭಂತೇ ಯುದ್ಧಮೀದೃಶಮ್ ೩೨॥

yadcchayā copapanna svargadvāramapāvtam |

sukhina katriyāḥ pārtha labhate yuddhamīdṛśam ||32||

Sloka 2.32 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

 Gist of the sloka:

O Partha, such wars can only happen due to the will of Lord. Fortunate are few who get opportunity to fight in such war. If you fight such a war [and die], the doors of the heaven is open for you. If you win, then the lordship of the kingdom here on the earth and post death heavenly position is yours.

Explanation:

To ignite a war for no reason is wrong. In this scenario, the war was imposed on the Pandavas. The war is happening because the Lord willed it that way. Nothing moves or happens in this world independently of Lord. One should therefore accept the things/events as it happens with this belief.

For those who fight against evil, the doors of the heaven are opened for them. The chance to fight in this war is a unique opportunity which rarely happens to a kshatriya. It must be due to their accumulated ‘punya’ [meritorious deeds pleasing the Lord]. It is inappropriate for a kshatriya to sit idle during such opportunities.

This clears up any doubts one has, as to why Lord Krishna is insisting on the war. All other dharmas need to be in alignment with Sanathana dharma. One should therefore follow the Sanathana dharma and act accordingly.

The Sanathana dharma indicates one should fight and stand up against evil forces. One should therefore perform their given duties and do the needful. Here Arjuna being a kshatriya should fight against the forces of evil without considering his relationships or companionship.

 ಅಥ ಚೇತ್ ತ್ವಂ ಧರ್ಮ್ಯಮಿಮಂ  ಸಂಗ್ರಾಮಂ ನ ಕರಿಷ್ಯಸಿ ।

ತತಃ ಸ್ವಧರ್ಮಂ ಕೀರ್ತಿಂ ಚ ಹಿತ್ವಾ ಪಾಪಮವಾಪ್ಸ್ಯಸಿ ೩೩

Sloka 2.33 to 2.38 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannaje Govindacharya)

atha cet tva dharmyamima  sagrāma na kariyasi |

tata svadharma kīrti ca hitvā pāpamavāpsyasi ||33||

Sloka 2.33 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

If you do not do your solemn duty when the opportunity has presented itself, you will incur sin [of not following the Sanathana dharma thereby displeasing the Lord] and will be cursed.

Explanation:

Lord Krishna is telling Arjuna, in case you are worried of accumulating sins by fighting the war, then by not going to the war, you are going to accumulate even greater sins and the gates of the Hell would be opened for you.

This is a dharmic war [reestablishing the rule of dharma]. If you enter the fight, you would be on the good side fighting for righteousness. If you stay out, then you would be working against the Sanathana dharma, Kula dharma and induvial dharma.

This non-action would be blemish on your character forever along with accumulating great sins. Lord Krishna is trying to educate Arjuna about the real dharma and how and why one’s actions should be in alignment with it.

Lord Krishna is giving the criteria for distinguishing between ‘punya’ and ‘papha’ [non-meritorious deed].

Telling truth is one of the aspects of Sanathana dharma. Let us see an example. A pious person with some valuables is running away from dacoits in a forest. He sees a hermitage and sneaks inside it and stays hidden. The hermitage person sees this scene. Dacoits arrive at the scene and asks this hermitage person if he has seen the person with the valuables.

In case he tells the dacoits, that the person is inside the hermitage, the dacoits would not only steal the valuables but might also harm the pious person. Telling the info as is, might be considered telling truth. In case, he misguides the dacoits and makes them go away in a different direction, he can only do so when he lies.

The question would be what is the actual truth here. Lord says by saying a small lie to protect a pious person is the ‘truth’ and by telling the actual info causing harm to the person is ‘falsehood’. The context being the dacoits are not ‘pious’ people and their intention is to cause harm and steal. To encourage such evil is ‘falsehood’ and to prevent such event is ‘truth’. Balance between small lie to protect pious against real info encouraging evil.

Similar is the situation when a person puts knife into a person body. The context behind the action determines the ‘punya’ and ‘papha’ of the action. One might be a surgeon another a thief.

 ಅಕೀರ್ತಿಂ ಚಾಪಿ ಭೂತಾನಿ  ಕಥಯಿಷ್ಯಂತಿ ತೇSವ್ಯಯಾಮ್ ।

ಸಂಭಾವಿತಸ್ಯ ಚಾಕೀರ್ತಿರ್ಮರಣಾದತಿರಿಚ್ಯತೇ ೩೪

akīrti cāpi bhūtāni  kathayiyati teSvyayām |

sabhāvitasya cākīrtirmaraṇādatiricyate ||34||

Sloka 2.34 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

People would only talk about your last war where you withdrew. For a person, his reputation is more important than actual death.

Explanation:

Talking about the impact on the society, Lord explains to Arjuna the consequences of his action of withdrawal from the war. The society would not understand that Arjuna has withdrawn from the war due to value he had in the relationships with his relatives and friends. They [society] would only recognize it as cowardly action. They would show Arjuna as an example to their children as to how not to behave as a coward.

They would scold him and disrespect him even when he is alive. For a leader who sets example to the society, good reputation is most important. Destroying such a good reputation is worse than death.

 ಭಯಾದ್ ರಣಾದುಪರತಂ   ಮಂಸ್ಯಂತೇ ತ್ವಾಂ ಮಹಾರಥಾಃ

ಯೇಷಾಂ ಚ ತ್ವಂ ಬಹುಮತೋ ಭೂತ್ವಾ ಯಾಸ್ಯಸಿ ಲಾಘವಮ್ ೩೫

bhayād raṇāduparata   masyate tvāṃ mahārathāḥ |

yeṣāṃ ca tva bahumato bhūtvā yāsyasi lāghavam ||35||

Sloka 2.35 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

Others consider you has a great fearsome warrior. Once you withdraw the same people will consider you as a coward, as a person who could not face them. They will laugh at you.

Explanation:

Perception is as much important as reputation. Arjuna having fought so many battles had a reputation as a fearsome warrior who is difficult to face and to survive to win. With that being the reputation, the other warriors would already have in their mind, great fear to face Arjuna. In case he withdraws, the same warriors would now mock him and the perception [that he was a fearsome warrior] that he had accumulated over so many battles would be forever be erased.

ಅವಾಚ್ಯವಾದಾಂಶ್ಚ ಬಹೂನ್ ವದಿಷ್ಯಂತಿ ತವಾಹಿತಾಃ

ನಿಂದಂತಸ್ತವ ಸಾಮರ್ಥ್ಯಂ ತತೋ ದುಃಖತರಂ ನು ಕಿಮ್ ೩೬

avācyavādāṃśca bahūn vadiyati tavāhitāḥ |

nidatastava sāmarthya tato dukhatara nu kim ||36||

Sloka 2.36 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

Those who are your enemies, would mock you and would humiliate you in many cruel words. What else is there, which could cause a greater pain to a warrior?

Explanation:

Lord Krishna stresses again and again the consequences for the rest of the life of Arjun if he withdraws and how painful it would be. One action would not only wipe out his past achievements but all the reputation built up so diligently over multiple decades.

Lord Krishna is trying to explain to Arjuna how the society perceives. Its memory is short. Similar would be the case of a judge. If he decides in favor of his relatives because of his connect with them, no matter how judicious he was before, his reputation is in tatters within seconds. Every judgement he has given until now would now be suspect and those affected by it would curse the judge.

ಹತೋ ವಾ ಪ್ರಾಪ್ಸ್ಯಸಿ ಸ್ವರ್ಗಂ ಜಿತ್ವಾ ವಾ ಭೋಕ್ಷ್ಯಸೇ ಮಹೀಮ್ ।

ತಸ್ಮಾದುತ್ತಿಷ್ಠ ಕೌಂತೇಯ ಯುದ್ಧಾಯ ಕೃತನಿಶ್ಚಯಃ ೩೭

hato vā prāpsyasi svarga jitvā vā bhokyase mahīm |

tasmāduttiṣṭha kauteya yuddhāya ktaniścaya ||37||

Sloka 2.37 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

If you lose the war, you will earn a place in Heaven. If you win you will get rulership over the land. Therefore, do not hesitate anymore and stand up to fight.

Explanation:

We do not know if we will win the war. When fighting in a war for righteousness, death or win, both opens the doors to heaven. This is war is not being fought on basis of selfishness or personal goals. The war is against evil and for dharma. Therefore, keeping these thoughts in mind, get up and fight.

It is important to keep the fact that any actions we perform, should be in alignment with Sanathana dharma. One who is following the dharma and walking in its path, should never fear. One should not worry about the results of following the dharma, for at the end it always leads towards final emancipation [mukthi].

 ಸುಖದುಃಖೇ ಸಮೇ ಕೃತ್ವಾ ಲಾಭಾಲಾಭೌ ಜಯಾಜಯೌ

ತತೋ ಯುದ್ಧಾಯ ಯುಜ್ಯಸ್ವ ನೈವಂ ಪಾಪಮವಾಪ್ಸ್ಯಸಿ ೩೮

sukhadukhe same ktvā lābhālābhau jayājayau |

tato yuddhāya yujyasva naiva pāpamavāpsyasi ||38||

Sloka 2.38 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

Fight only after viewing happiness & sadness, win and lose, earning & losses in the same manner – for it will not earn you any papha.

Explanation:

Happiness & sadness, win and lose, earning & losses are all inevitable in one’s life. If one perceives these up’s and down’s in a calm mind, then there is no accumulation of sins. One should therefore perform his actions as duties, that is the secret of success.

Lord Krishna says: One should without any selfish aim to win and accumulate riches, without desire that my opponents should face defeat/loss, with the sole aim that everything that happening is as per Lord; and one only need to do his duty and fight the war.

If all others also follow the steps given by the Lord in their lives, one will never face grief. One should follow the principle: whatever comes, let it come [we will face it]; but Lord give me Your grace at all times.

One who always adheres to the dharmic path, the doors of the heaven is always open for him. He will not see grief as grief, loss as a loss; for he will see heaven here and above.

So far Lord described the nature of soul, what living means, what is death, difference between soul and Lord [paramatma], what is the secret behind all this, what is in existence for ever etc., He also described the necessity of the war. So far the verses described the science behind [Eshwara or Belief in God] Shaankya shastra [science]. There is another kind of [Nir Eeshwarya] Shaankya which does not belief in existence of God. Lord does not reference it anytime.

It’s our practical experience that whenever we read/hear such spiritual books like Gita, our mind temporarily feels great and we even wish to remember it forever. In reality, we forget it, moments later. So is the case with Arjuna. He after getting the lessons directly from the Lord himself, forgets everything [in a few days’ time] and laments due to his son’s Abhimanyu’s death. To obtain the right knowledge and experience to achieve mukthi is no easy task. By just understanding that soul/atma is immortal is not enough. We need to strive to understand the entire science behind it. Once a person understands it completely, then grief and happiness means the same.

Question would be how do we understand the complete knowledge about Lord and souls? What is the means to do so? How do we retain such a knowledge permanently? Lord Krishna takes us now on that journey, answering all of the above.

 ಏಷಾ ತೇSಭಿಹಿತಾ ಸಾಂಖ್ಯೇ ಬುದ್ಧಿರ್ಯೋಗೇ ತ್ವಿಮಾಂ ಶೃಣು ।

ಬುದ್ಧ್ಯಾ ಯುಕ್ತೋ ಯಯಾ ಪಾರ್ಥ ಕರ್ಮ ಬಂಧಂ ಪ್ರಹಾಸ್ಯಸಿ ೩೯

Sloka 2.39 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannaje Govindacharya)

eṣā teSbhihitā sāṃkhye buddhiryoge tvimāṃ śṛṇu |

buddhyā yukto yayā pārtha karma badha prahāsyasi ||39||

Sloka 2.39 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

I have taught you the science of atma. I am now going to instruct you and how to master it. O Partha, once you assimilate it, you would be free of karma bindings.

Explanation:

Lord Krishna says, so far, I was instructing you in the science of Shaankya. I will now instruct you on how to achieve it.

This is also known as Vedic Shaankya [that which upholds Vedic concepts] and that which was given by Sri Kapila Vasudeva [an avatar of Lord] to his mother Devahuti. Shaankya means that which gives our correct path and knowledge. It is due to these reasons ancients called the science which gives our right path as Shaankya.

Yoga is that which gives a path/solution/method/process which leads towards Lord. If we remove the Lord in such yoga, then its not considered yoga but a meaningless process. It is not the same yoga as mentioned by Patanjali in his yoga sutras. Of the various types of yoga, some are related to medical, physical flexibility, breathe science [pranayama] etc., practice of which does not require the concept of Lord.

It is not that practice of these yoga does not have benefits. Those benefits include obtaining specific siddis [powers] including magic/illusion etc., Those siddis does not lead us to mukthi but is utilized to amaze the populace and obtain fame. Vedas caution us not to be behind obtaining siddis and even demonstrate them. For such actions lead us away from Lord.

It is like the story of the person who spent 10-15 years in intense yoga to get the power/siddi to walk on water. It does not lead him to mukthi or enhance his knowledge of self. Rather the same aspect of crossing the water could have been achieved by paying a small token to the boat keeper. Those years could have enhanced his knowledge which would be with him irrespective of his many births.

Neither does one get mukthi immediately after obtaining the sacred knowledge. One should clear-up/experience the previous karma [prarabdha, that which has started to act] before reaching the elevated state.

The yoga being taught here by Lord Krishna is about science of Atma; selfawareness and how to reach the Lord. Gita is about how to achieve the final mukthi and understanding of soul and its relationship with the Lord.

Lord now talks about the science of the soul [self-realization], by treading which path a person can overcome the attachment of karmas and achieve mukthi. Lord now talks about the methods and means of achieving the same.

There are various books which instruct us of how to live from outside perspective. There is very little books which talk about the way we need to fashion our lives from inside leading to mukthi. How long should one meditate, in fact what should we meditate upon? What thoughts should we let our memory consist of?

Just with external rituals, dress, ceremonies etc., we achieve nothing. We need inner knowledge, wisdom and mental/memory state, that which leads to mukthi. The knowledge and our thoughts should be so aligned, that our inner and external actions are the same and there is one set of thoughts aligned to actions, leading to pleasing of the Lord.

Our belief and integrity should be same. Inner achievement in this direction is more important than external actions. We need knowledge but more importantly we need the right knowledge of self-realization leading to God realization. The knowledge should set us free from the cycle of the birth and death leading to final emancipation. Lord describes these in the next verses.

 ನೇಹಾಭಿಕ್ರಮನಾಶೋSಸ್ತಿ ಪ್ರತ್ಯವಾಯೋ ನ ವಿದ್ಯತೇ ।

ಸ್ವಲ್ಪಮಪ್ಯಸ್ಯ ಧರ್ಮಸ್ಯ ತ್ರಾಯತೇ ಮಹತೋ ಭಯಾತ್ ೪೦

Sloka 2.40 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannaje Govindacharya)

nehābhikramanāśoSsti pratyavāyo na vidyate |

svalpamapyasya dharmasya trāyate mahato bhayāt ||40||

Sloka 2.40 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

Even hesitant steps in this direction is not wasted. A small action of following the dharma, could prevent a dangerous fear to us.

Explanation:

Lord Krishna is instructing that, while the soul is immortal so is the real knowledge. One who is on the path of seeing this science of self-realization, he need not worry that the knowledge dies with his body. The soul continues on the path in its new birth and nothing ever is wasted.

Any action in following the dharma does not go un rewarded. Lord remembers our efforts and duly safeguards us from dangerous fears. One who protects Dharma is protected by it.

There is a common question which occurs to all of us. We are born, we study, acquire knowledge [all references are to knowledge of self-realization] and then die. We are born again. Do we then have to redo all the exercises?

Unlike the worldly education system wherein we start off from the kindergarten every time we have new birth, Lord Krishna clearly indicates that when it comes the knowledge of self, each of these sciences cannot be understood in one lifetime. Secondly this knowledge is attached to the self/soul, which itself is made of light of knowledge.

Which means the knowledge is not lost with the loss of gross body but attached permanently to the soul. When the next birth happens, the Lord ensures that the study continues from wherever it was left out last time. It is through this cycle of accumulation of the right knowledge over multiple births that the soul reaches the state of elevation leading to mukthi.

We have seen and continue to see child prodigies, who after a short time exhibit extraordinary depth of knowledge in their chosen fields be it art, music, science, knowledge etc., This is due to the fact that they had in their previous lives achieved extraordinary heights in their chosen fields and are continuing the process in their next.

Knowledge about self is not a thing to be demonstrated or exhibited for it is sacred and needs to be treated with great respect at all times. This is the science of inner world. There is no better time to start on this path than at this instant. Even if we have just started on this sacred journey, it would at the appropriate time would lead you to mukthi - without fail. That initial action itself is enough to prevent great fears coming your way. These are the promises of the universal Lord. There is no one else superior or equal to him to prevent him from carrying out his promise. If not him, who else can protect us or lead us?

There are 3 types of students of this science of Atma. Uttama [superior], madhyama [middle category] and finally adhama [lower category].

Uttama also known as ‘Bhagavatharu’ believe in the superiority of the universal Lord Krishna. They believe he is supreme and there is none equal or superior to him. They believe all other demi-Gods belong to his retinue and dedicate all their actions/prayers/ceremonies in the beginning, middle and at the end, to Him alone.

The Uttama devotee also believes that the entire world of sounds, words, names belong to Him alone and they represent different qualities in Him. Irrespective whom they show respect to [demi-Gods, elders in the family etc.,] they believe He is within them and receiving their worship. Such a devotee is a true believer and a sincere student. They would finally reach the state of mukthi for they have understood the real knowledge of omnipresence, omnipotent and omniscience of the Lord in the universe.

Coming to madhyama category, they worship individual demi-Gods as independent and at the end of the worship/ceremony, dedicate the action to Lord Krishna. These people are called ‘trividyaru’. They do get some benefits as the Lord is in ever thing and receives the offering, but it might result in minor benefit and they would reach heaven [for the good actions done] but would come back for rebirth and deaths. As they do not have real Vedic knowledge of the Lord indwelling in everything they go through the cycle of birth and deaths repeatedly.

Lastly the adhama category of devotees do not believe in the sole suzerainty of the Lord over the universe. They worship each demi-God separately and believe that all of demi-Gods favors are required to survive and cannot be ignored. They do not believe that the Lord Krishna occupies everything and is present everywhere. They have no clue as to the real Vedic purports. They will never progress in their path of self-realization.

When one performs his actions with a single-minded devotion and concentration after knowing the truth of self-realization and God realization, his actions are never wasted. It does not matter in what form or name the Lord is being worshipped as long as we have the knowledge that it’s the universal Lord Krishna who is sought by us. Such practices would be far away from influences of fear, hatred, selfishness, ego, grief etc., That practice would certainly elevate oneself, for such actions should be understood to be blessings from Lord.

 ವ್ಯವಸಾಯಾತ್ಮಿಕಾ ಬುದ್ಧಿರೇಕೇಹ ಕುರುನಂದನ।

ಬಹುಶಾಖಾ ಹ್ಯನನಂತಾಶ್ಚ ಬುದ್ಧಯೋSವ್ಯವಸಾಯಿನಾಮ್ ೪೧॥

Sloka 2.41 to 2.44 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannaje Govindacharya)

vyavasāyātmikā buddhirekeha kurunadana|

bahuśākhā hyananatāśca buddhayoSvyavasāyinām ||41||

Sloka 2.41 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

O son of Kuru, those who have experienced this path say the same thing. Those who have not, speak in many ways.

Explanation:

Lord Krishna is instructing Arjuna as to how to choose the right path. Those who have experienced the science of self-realization always talk about the path being same to them. Whereas on the contrary, those who have no knowledge of the right path, keep mentioning multiple of paths and but have not realized themselves.

By knowing the right people who have the right knowledge, one should tread on their path to achieve the same.

It is extremely difficult to understand among the chaos and cacophony of the world to understand which is the right true path. For such path is only one. It is falsehood to say, all paths lead to God realization. It does not.

It is important to understand when multiple realized souls are all mentioning the same path and that path which is in alignment with the Vedas and Lord words – should be the right path. One should be careful and make attempts to understand it completely and proceed on the same side.

 ಯಾಮಿಮಾಂ ಪುಷ್ಪಿತಾಂ ವಾಚಂ ಪ್ರವದಂತ್ಯವಿಪಶ್ಚಿತಃ ।

ವೇದವಾದರತಾಃ ಪಾರ್ಥ ನಾನ್ಯದಸ್ತೀತಿ ವಾದಿನಃ ॥೪೨

yāmimāṃ pupitāṃ vāca pravadatyavipaścita |

vedavādaratāḥ pārtha nānyadastīti vādina ||42||

Sloka 2.42 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

O Partha, those who have limited knowledge say, that this Vedic knowledge leads to the only creeper which raises to heaven. The karmas surrounding our birth itself is its fruit.

Explanation:

Those who are only fascinated with the poetic verses of the Vedas assume that the essence of the Vedas is only to obtain material comforts and benefits. They do not perceive Vedas being anything more than that.

ಕಾಮಾತ್ಮಾನಃ ಸ್ವರ್ಗಪರಾ ಜನ್ಮಕರ್ಮಫಲಪ್ರದಾಮ್ ।

ಕ್ರಿಯಾವಿಶೇಷಬಹುಲಾಂ ಭೋಗೈಶ್ವರ್ಯಗತಿಂ ಪ್ರತಿ  ॥೪೩॥

kāmātmāna svargaparā janmakarmaphalapradām |

kriyāviśeabahulāṃ bhogaiśvaryagati prati  ||43||

Sloka 2.43 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

These people stop at the thoughts that the Vedas is meant to be means to perform various actions [fire sacrifices homas/yagnas] and are happy at the external meaning of the poetic words.

Explanation:

Purva mimansakaru is one such category of people, whose sole objective is to perform the various yagnas, obtain heavenly positions and once the karmas expire come back and redo the exercise again and again. They do not try to understand the inner intent or deeper meaning of the Vedas.

The Vedas hide such secrets of self-realization, which when understood elevates the soul to mukthi.

 ಭೋಗೈಶ್ವರ್ಯಪ್ರಸಕ್ತಾನಾಂ ತಯಾSಪಹೃತಚೇತಸಾಮ್

ವ್ಯವಸಾಯಾತ್ಮಿಕಾ ಬುದ್ಧಿಃ ಸಮಾಧೌ ನ ವಿಧೀಯತೇ  ೪೪

bhogaiśvaryaprasaktānāṃ tayāSpahtacetasām |

vyavasāyātmikā buddhi samādhau na vidhīyate  ||44||

Sloka 2.44 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

These who have only understood the superficial meaning of the Veda's and being keen on obtaining comforts and riches, will never achieve real progress.

Explanation:

Lord Krishna says that by just studying and knowing the superficial meaning of the Veda's would never lead people to understand the Lord. These people are called “Veda vadins”, those who swim in the waters of the Veda's but never go deep into the realize the hidden treasures of pearl.

They argue about the Vedic purports without understanding it. They then spread their ignorance [as knowledge] to the society and head straight to hell. So, is the case with priests [purohits] who have only the verbal knowledge of the verses in the Veda's without having any depth understanding about the meaning. A purohit should be one who is at the elevated state so as to guide the family who seek him. He too has a direct path to Hell for having mis-guided the people.

Those who neglect the quest for deeper understanding of the hidden secrets of the Veda's, they are consider to have committed cheating. All sacred books in most philosophies have hidden meanings which unless sought after, will never open themselves to the seeker. The reason being one should be a genuine seeker, for the God realization secrets to be given out. It is not meant for those who are superficial seekers.

If there is a question about why there is no books, which can over a period of time, provide graded texts, making it easy to understand [modern education system wherein text book is meant only for that grade]; then the answer is that not everyone is meant to understand everything. Therefore, the books are written/provided in such a way that along with the maturity levels of the seeker the books keep opening themselves in a gradual way. Depending upon the strength and determination of the seeker, the books also appropriately provide him with the knowledge. A real guru here substitutes for the graded books by intently knowing and providing the knowledge, appropriate at the seekers levels.

Lord Krishna condemns such superficial seekers as they cause harm to the society at large.

 ತ್ರೈಗುಣ್ಯವಿಷಯಾ ವೇದಾ ನಿಸ್ತ್ರೈಗುಣ್ಯೋ ಭವಾರ್ಜುನ ।

ನಿರ್ದ್ವಂದ್ವೋ ನಿತ್ಯಸತ್ತ್ವಸ್ಥೋ ನಿರ್ಯೋಗಕ್ಷೇಮ ಆತ್ಮವಾನ್ ೪೫॥

Sloka 2.45 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannaje Govindacharya)

traiguyaviayā vedā nistraiguyo bhavārjuna |

nirdvadvo nityasattvastho niryogakema ātmavān ||45||

Sloka 2.45 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

Veda's on the superficial level, talks about the relationship with 3 gunas and its effect. O Arjuna, elevate yourself above these 3 gunas and its effect. Come out of the duality and keep your faith in the Lord. Surrender your wellbeing to Him and believe in Him.

Explanation:

So far, Lord Krishna has told us about the results of the wrong interpretation and being superficial in understanding the Veda's. He now lays out the path as to how to surrender oneself to the Lord and proceed.

At the superficial level, the Veda's seems to be talking about worldly matters and relationships with the 3 primary gunas [Satvic – calm, goodness, Rajasic – anger and ferociousness and Tamasic – sleep, lethargy etc.,]. The action of these 3 gunas in various stages, instances of the life is what affects us.

Everyone has a combination of these in different variable % at all times. Only the Lord [& Sri Lakshmi] are above these gunas. The influence of these gunas is what drives us to think and act at various times. Like a person who wears a colored lens, the world looks different so does the action of these gunas.

Veda's at the superficial glance gives out knowledge of the various sacrifices like Ashvamedha, Rajasuya, Putrakameshti etc., for obtaining worldly comforts. People should not stop at this level but try to dig deeper into the meaning and secrets of the Veda's to understand that while these rewards are possible, the inner secret is the knowledge about the Lord and how to obtain mukthi using the same Vedic knowledge.

We should therefore elevate ourselves from the 3 gunas and should be ‘trigunaya vargitharu’. One should therefore breakdown the 3 barriers of the gunas and then reach out to the supreme Lord and His knowledge. Only then can the real progress be made. We should at all times remember that the Lord omnipresent is also present inside us. We should surrender to that Lord who is inside along with our soul, at all times.

When going into and in Dhanya state [meditation on Lord], one should still the mind, to think about the Lord in a concentrated manner and avoid all other distractions. He should be calm with the strong belief in Lord and dedicate/surrender to the mercies of the Lord. One should be peaceful and overcome the 3 gunas [barriers/fences] and reach out to the supreme. If one studies with this mindset the Veda's, we would realize that Veda's purport is the sacred knowledge and not necessarily the worldly aspects.

One should perform all worships, sacrifices, prayers etc., with the knowledge that it’s a service being done to the Lord, who is the indweller in all. There is should be no selfish motives or desires when doing so. Lord who is omnipresent and omni potent would certainly reward such services. After all, who else than the universal Lord can know, what we need at what time and in what form. Lord who knows everything would certainly protect us at all time. It is only our ego or lack of belief which prevents us from elevating ourselves.

This method/process is known as yoga [way forward/solution]. Otherwise the entire life is spent trying to obtain material comforts and little of the sacred knowledge. We should therefore be happy with what the Lord has given and utilize the same to follow His guidance to elevate ourselves. We have to do our bit of duty, as given to us all, with the strong belief that Lord knows the best. Only in this state does mukthi happen. This is the state of mind that one should start on the journey towards the Lord. Once this state is reached, we realize that every sacred text [Veda's etc.,] is only talking about the Lord and nothing else.

If we critically analyze, it clearly means that there are two paths. One which is Karma [action] oriented and one which is knowledge [gynana] oriented. Lord Krishna stresses more on knowledge path.

Questions arises why priority is to gynana; when one can obtain heaven through performances of karma [actions]?

Typically, Veda's are told to have 3 faces – knowledge [gynana], karma [action] and upasana [to meditate, to think of]. Lord Krishna tells that Veda's have only one face - here is only knowledge. There is only knowledge in the Veda's. Other two can be performed after knowing that right knowledge, which is required to perform them. He elaborates that in the next verse.

 ಯಾವಾನರ್ಥ ಉದಪಾನೇ ಸರ್ವತಃ ಸಂಪ್ಲುತೋದಕೇ ।

ತಾವಾನ್ ಸರ್ವೇಷು ವೇದೇಷು ಬ್ರಾಹ್ಮಣಸ್ಯ ವಿಜಾನತಃ ೪೬॥

Sloka 2.46 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannaje Govindacharya)

yāvānartha udapāne sarvata saplutodake |

tāvān sarveu vedeu brāhmaasya vijānata ||46||

Sloka 2.46 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

What benefit can be obtained from a well; the same can be obtained from mighty river. What, all Veda's provide, the same is obtained by the gynani.

Explanation:

Gynani means one who has understood the real, deeper meaning in the Veda's. He who is a gynani knows the inner deeper meaning of the Veda's and its real purpose. Gynani can only achieve this state once he has surrendered completely to the Lord and sought refuge in Him alone. At this state, the Veda's open up and reveal the true knowledge.

There is more and varied benefits from drawing the water from a flowing river than from a well. A Gynani who has understood the real meanings of the Veda similarly gets more benefit than a superficial reader of Veda's. For the superficial person would be satisfied with the rewards of worldly nature obtained from sacrifices, whereas the gynani would get benefits like self-realization and mukthi.

A Gynani is like a person next to the river, who sees Lord in everything and in all actions. The person who only sees the superficial meaning related to the karmas is like a person doing the sacrifice for the sake of sweat and smoke.

The sloka contains the word Brahmana. This does not indicate someone born in the brahmin caste but rather a person who has understood completely, the inner meaning of each letter, word, phrase, sloka and the text of Veda – or Brahman. For even individual letter denotes the Lord. The Veda's are only praising the Lord and nothing else. One who has understood the Veda's, has realized the Lord and is with Him always. Such a person has discovered the pearls of the Veda's.

There is another word mentioned in the verse – “sarwathaha soplumthodaka” meaning [vessel] full of water. Here the inner meaning references to the final dissolution state of the universe when everything is broken down to its atomic state. The water here refers to the universe filled only with atoms except for the Lord who floats on it – one is ever awake the Lord of the universe.

There is a bit of confusion here. On one hand Lord says do not demand specific result but every sacrifice mentioned in the Veda's mention about the rewards for performing it; mostly worldly in nature. How do we reconcile this?

Like we offer sugar candy to a child to make it swallow a bitter medicine [all for baby’s own benefit] so does the Veda's. Those who are just starting off, need an incentive to motivate them to read and understand the Veda's and its teachings. Such rewards are meant for those who seek quick rewards as motivation. Over a period of time, one realizes that Veda's has much more to offer than quick rewards. They then go deeper into the understanding of the Veda's and realize that it has paths to mukthi.

 ಕರ್ಮಣ್ಯೇವಾಧಿಕಾರಸ್ತೇ ಮಾ ಫಲೇಷು ಕದಾಚನ ।

ಮಾ ಕರ್ಮಫಲಹೇತುರ್ಭೂರ್ಮಾ ತೇ ಸಂಗೋSಸ್ತ್ವಕರ್ಮಣಿ ॥೪೭॥

Sloka 2.47 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannaje Govindacharya)

karmayevādhikāraste mā phaleu kadācana |

mā karmaphalaheturbhūrmā te sagoSstvakarmai ||47||

Sloka 2.47 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

You have right to the performance of action and not to the rewards. Don’t do the karma [action] keeping the rewards as the sole objective.

Explanation:

This is one of the most famous verse, grossly mis-interpreted over eons. It is confusing as it says one should do the action compulsorily but not in anticipation of rewards. The very motivation for karma is now under question. Unfortunately, these cryptic verses has never been fully understood by the populace.

The simple fact is Lord Krishna is telling, while its necessary for us to do our duty, we should not stake a claim to insisting on a particular reward. The right to duty remains with us while the Lord retains the right to reward. We should not over reach ourselves in acquiring the Lord right to ourselves. Lord knows at all times what to be given as reward and when. We should always be within our limits and boundaries.

The question would then be, is it wrong to aspire for a reward. No, it’s not. Only difference being we request the Lord for a reward not demand it as a right. We are not omnipotent, omnipresent or omniscient as Lord. Only he has to the right to reward. It is like a child writing the exam and determining for itself the reward of marks. We don’t allow it ourselves to our children and we separate the action [writing exams] from rewards [marks] and in higher plane it is exactly the same.

To insist on the exact reward and putting a condition before doing our duty, is a strictly not allowed. It would border on arrogance in front of the universal lord. We in our ignorance sometime insist on a particular reward from the Lord. The Lord knowing what is good for our progress in self-realization [for that is the ultimate goal for all lives] decides and then offers us His reward. Not realizing this, we go into grief [mental dis satisfaction, disturbance] as rewards is not according to our dreams. If we accept what is provided, then there is no grief.

One should not withdraw from performing assigned duties at any time. For then there is no grief. One who sees win/defeat in equal manner, have no reason to grieve. This state will elevate us to higher level of consciousness. We therefore learn more in loss than when we are winning. The Lord gives us rewards with the sole aim to uplift us and sometimes rewards might appear not give us any happiness. With acceptance, this aspect will never bother anyone.

Performing ones given actions, without seeking specific rewards but with the sole aim to please the Lord, is Lord Krishna karma yoga.

Arjuna fighting the war with the aim to win for righteousness is not wrong. What is wrong is to insist that he should win or to worry about loss. He should therefore surrender to the will of the Lord, the results/actions of the war; and only perform his duty faithfully. In this state of mind, the ups and downs of the various battles in the war would not affect him. Accepting whatever the Lord provides as his blessings is the safest and surest way to reach the Lord.

ಯೋಗಸ್ಥಃ ಕುರು ಕರ್ಮಾಣಿ ಸಂಗಂ ತ್ಯಕ್ತ್ವಾ ಧನಂಜಯ ।

ಸಿದ್ಧ್ಯಸಿದ್ಧ್ಯೋಃ ಸಮೋ ಭೂತ್ವಾ ಸಮತ್ವಂ ಯೋಗ ಉಚ್ಯತೇ ೪೮॥

Sloka 2.48 to 2.51 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannaje Govindacharya)

yogastha kuru karmāṇi saga tyaktvā dhanajaya |

siddhyasiddhyo samo bhūtvā samatva yoga ucyate ||48||

Sloka 2.48 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

O Dhannanjaya. Remaining in this yoga, perform your actions. Remove the attachment to the rewards, irrespective of your win or loss, be in steady state of mind. This is called yoga.

Explanation:

Lord Krishna instructs Arjuna that one should have single minded intention to do the duty which has fallen on one without worrying about the final rewards, which may or may not be favorable to oneself. Keeping one in a steady state of mind, irrespective of the result, one should always perform one’s duties to his fullest extent.

Yoga means a path to/solution/alignment with - Lord. If it’s not related to Lord then its not considered yoga. Lord Krishna here is instructing the art of Karma yoga to Arjuna.

Dhannanjaya means one who is an expert in the art of warfare and has many riches. He who has extended the boundaries of the kingdom and won many wars. The spiritual meaning means one who has access to the knowledge of the Lord – which is the real wealth. Being an avatar of Indira the celestial king, Arjuna was also the foremost gynani at that time on the Earth [apart from Bheemasena]. Hence the reason Lord Krishna called him Dhannanjaya.

If a person performs many sacrifices, without understanding the deeper meaning that the Lord within us, has given us this body, opportunity, materials, various arrangements to perform the sacrifice as a worship/service towards the Lord, then such a sacrifice is wasted effort. This is a sacrifice without awareness of Lord.

If he performs such a sacrifice with the knowledge of the Lord behind every event/action, then it becomes yoga [karma yoga]. This takes us nearer to Lord.

 ದೂರೇಣ ಹ್ಯವರಂ ಕರ್ಮ ಬುದ್ಧಿಯೋಗಾದ್  ಧನಂಜಯ ।

ಬುದ್ಧೌ ಶರಣಮನ್ವಿಚ್ಛ ಕೃಪಣಾಃ ಫಲಹೇತವಃ ೪೯॥

dūrea hyavara karma buddhiyogād  dhanajaya |

buddhau śaraamanviccha kpaṇāḥ phalahetava ||49||

Sloka 2.49 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

O Dhannanjaya, the path of knowledge is much superior to path of action. Therefore, prefer the path of knowledge and remain there. Those who seek rewards remain a niggards.

Explanation:

Lord Krishna is clearly indicating that the path of knowledge [gynana] is much superior to the path of karma and it needs to be followed to fullest extent. Those who keep seeking rewards for their karmas, are in pitiable conditions. Those who follow the gynana elevate themselves.

There are some who indicate the path of karma [karma yoga] remains superior, some others who claim the path of knowledge [gynana yoga] remains superior. Some indicate both the yoga’s are like two wheels of a chariot and are equal. This contradictory philosophies leads to varied interpretation and confusions.

Lord Krishna is very clear in indicating that the path of the knowledge [gynana yoga] is superior and karma yoga is inferior but a necessary first step to achieve gynana yoga. To perform the correct karma yoga, one must have right knowledge. This cohabitation between the two is necessary to enhance the knowledge one has. On the contrary performing the karma without right knowledge is a entirely wasted effort.

To raise oneself, one must perform the right karmas [with right knowledge]. This leads towards God realization. One should not become egoistic after reaching this state. One should realize that Lord is the only refuge and sole protector. This conviction is the state of surrender.

If in difficulty, one should believe the above message and pray to him along the following lines “O Lord, please show me the way out of this difficulty”. Lord would then certainly provide us with a way out of the difficulty. Again, one should accept whatever the Lord provides as the solution, as his blessings, without demanding one.

ಬುದ್ಧಿಯುಕ್ತೋ ಜಹಾತೀಹ ಉಭೇ ಸುಕೃತದುಷ್ಕೃತೇ ।

ತಸ್ಮಾದ್ ಯೋಗಾಯ ಯುಜ್ಯಸ್ವ ಯೋಗಃ ಕರ್ಮಸು ಕೌಶಲಮ್ ೫೦॥

buddhiyukto jahātīha ubhe suktadukte |

tasmād yogāya yujyasva yoga karmasu kauśalam ||50||

Sloka 2.50 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

One who has realized God, would wash out both his papha and punya; here itself. Therefore, proceed in the path of gynana. This is the real yoga; which one performs after knowing.

Explanation:

One who has achieved God realization, would wash away his accumulated papha and punya. Those karmas [deeds] would no longer hamper his progress towards reaching the Lord. Therefore, Lord instructs Arjuna to remain on the path of gynana yoga.

One accumulates karmas [deeds] due to various actions and inactions throughout one’s life. There are three types of karmas. They are sanchitha [accumulated over multiple lives/births/deaths], prarabdha [the reactions to the accumulated karmas which has started acting on the person in present time] and finally agami [future accumulations].

Again, there are two primary classifications – good deeds [punya] and bad deeds [papha]. In the punya [good deeds] category again there are two types – ishta [beneficial for realization] and anishta [not beneficial to realization].

Together all the 3 types of accumulation and 2 types [including sub classification of punya] of actions are called karmas here. Lord being ever present retains complete account of our karmas over multiple birth and deaths and applies the karmas as and how we have accumulated as per our overall growth.

For, very elevated God realized souls, who have achieved the entry to mukthi status, they still have to complete the ‘prarabdha’ karmas, which have already started. Lord being merciful would wipe out the accumulated [sanchitha] and agami [future possibilities] papha karmas.

Whereas the punya would remain. Of which people who have received the entry to mukthi have no reason to retain the anishta punya. Those are the ones which the Lord allows them to give it up. For they are not helpful for realization. They continue with only ishta punya which enhances their happiness in mukthi.

Anishta punya can be a reward as marrying beautiful women or emperorship of a large kingdom etc., For one who has already obtained access to mukthi these worldly rewards mean nothing and hence he rejects them for the greater reward, is to be with the Lord in mukthi.

 ಕರ್ಮಜಂ ಬುದ್ಧಿಯುಕ್ತಾ ಹಿ ಫಲಂ ತ್ಯಕ್ತ್ವಾ ಮನೀಷಿಣಃ ।

ಜನ್ಮಬಂಧವಿನಿರ್ಮುಕ್ತಾಃ ಪದಂ ಗಚ್ಛಂತ್ಯನಾಮಯಮ್ ೫೧॥

karmaja buddhiyuktā hi phala tyaktvā manīṣia |

janmabadhavinirmuktāḥ pada gacchatyanāmayam ||51||

Sloka 2.51 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

Gynani’s realizing the Lord, surrendering the rewards to him, removing oneself from the cycle of birth and deaths, obtains the position without blemishes.

Explanation:

Real seekers control their minds and win over it. They tread the path of gynana and realize Lord. They detach themselves/actions from the attachment to rewards and surrender the rewards to the Lord. They then obtain the unblemished position in mukthi.

Those who perform their duties with this sense of detachment, towards rewards, are real seekers and obtain the grace of the unblemished Lord. Therefore, one should perform their duties and not withdraw from it. A gynani too should perform his duties instead of sitting back and claiming a elevated status.

For two reasons, a gynani needs to perform his duties. One because due to his status, the populace will be looking towards him to set standards for others to follow. If he withdraws from performing his duties, so would the society. In which case the entire society is now on the path towards Hell.

Secondly, one cannot stop from performing actions. Even if he sits still, he is still performing the action of breathing, thinking, eating etc., Some of these happen even during sleep and unconscious states. As such the only time, there is no action is when he leaves the body.

Therefore, even a God realized person should continue to perform his duties always, surrendering those actions to the Lord.

 ಯದಾ ತೇ ಮೋಹಕಲಿಲಂ ಬುದ್ಧಿರ್ವ್ಯತಿತರಿಷ್ಯತಿ ।

ತದಾ ಗಂತಾನಿ ನಿರ್ವೇದಂ ಶ್ರೋತವ್ಯಸ್ಯ ಶ್ರುತಸ್ಯ ಚ ೫೨॥

Sloka 2.52 and 2.53 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannaje Govindacharya)

yadā te mohakalila buddhirvyatitariyati |

tadā gatāni nirveda śrotavyasya śrutasya ca ||52||

Sloka 2.52 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

The instant you clean your mind with the dirt of ignorance, you will realize the benefit of what was earlier instructed and what will be instructed next.

Explanation:

Once the mind has reached a state of peace which does not vacillate between two states, then the knowledge becomes clear. Not swayed by the duality of the various situations, one will truly and fully realize the benefits of the knowledge, being instructed.

In practical scenario, we read and listen to various topics about God; but still various confusions happen. By persisting in the actions of reading, listening and discussing about the various aspects of the Lord and reading the sacred books, the mind gradually becomes empty of the various negative inhibiting thoughts. It also gradually fills up with the right knowledge and leads to a state of seeing both win/loss equally and is emptied of attachment and anger. At that state of mind, the teachings previously given and to be given becomes easily understandable. We can only then realize the benefits of the Lord’s teaching.

 ಶ್ರುತಿವಿಪ್ರತಿಪನ್ನಾ ತೇ ಯದಾ ಸ್ಥಾಸ್ಯತಿ ನಿಶ್ಚಲಾ।

ಸಮಾಧಾವಚಲಾ ಬುದ್ಧಿಸ್ತದಾ ಯೋಗಮವಾಪ್ಸ್ಯಸಿ ೫೩॥

śrutivipratipannā te yadā sthāsyati niścalā|

samādhāvacalā buddhistadā yogamavāpsyasi ||53||

Sloka 2.53 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

That which originally did not align with the Shruthi, when it aligns with it, then your mind is strong due to knowledge and realization. It then reaches the state of samadhi and reaches the goal.

Explanation:

We first listen to the aspects of Lord. When we try to read the Veda's [Shruthi] it appears as though there is various contradiction. The mind gets confused and actually thinks against the Lord and his teachings. He first realizes the actions of the 3 gunas and thereon the method to overcome the barriers of the 3 gunas.

Once the mind is cleared of the confusions due to persistent thinking along the lines of the Shruthi, it now realizes the Vedic teachings. At that state, the mind, thinking and actions become one and aligned with/tuned to Veda's. What is in the mind and what the Veda's says would be the same. With this state, the mind stops working and the Atma directly starts realizing Lord. The Atma realizes who it is and the relationship with the Lord. This is the state of meditation, for God realization.

In fact, the learned people say, that at a stage when the mind automatically says what could be written in the Veda's, he has risen to the state where his need for Veda's [as a reference] is greatly reduced.

As we have noticed in the episode of churning of the ocean, the first thing which comes out is the poison and when persisting with the efforts it gives Amruta [the elixir of immortality]. So is the case when studying the various books of Lord including Veda's. The first thing which occurs is confusion and sometimes completely negative thoughts. If one persists, the next which comes out is Amrutha, the true knowledge of God-realization.

Being aware of this process, greatly helps in persisting with seeker’s determination.

 ಅರ್ಜುನ ಉವಾಚ

ಸ್ಥಿತಪ್ರಜ್ಞಸ್ಯ ಕಾ ಭಾಷಾ ಸಮಾಧಿಸ್ಥಸ್ಯ ಕೇಶವ ।

ಸ್ಥಿತಧೀಃ ಕಿಂ ಪ್ರಭಾಷೇತ ಕಿಮಾಸೀತ ವ್ರಜೇತ ಕಿಮ್  ೫೪॥

Sloka 2.54 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannaje Govindacharya)

arjuna uvāca

sthitaprajñasya kā bhāṣā samādhisthasya keśava |

sthitadhīḥ ki prabhāṣeta kimāsīta vrajeta kim  ||54||

Sloka 2.54 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

Arjuna says: O the controller of Brahma and Rudra [Keshava], how does one recognize the person, who is in ‘samadhi’ state and has realized the Lord? How does one recognize such a ‘stitha-pragna’? How does he speak? How does he sit? How does he walk?

Explanation:

One who has realized the Lord, he would have reached the state equal mindedness and is known as stitha-pragna. Due to the God realization, he would have reached inner peace and bliss and would continue to remain so. That state is known as samadhi state.

Arjuna wants to know how to recognize such person?

It is well neigh impossible to recognize a person who has reached the state of samadhi. For his achievement and qualities is related to his inner mental state and not visible to others outside by his dress, talk or actions. He who has no attachment to the outside world would rarely interact with it. Hence, Arjuna’s questions.

Arjuna calls Lord Krishna as Keshava. Arjuna by calling Lord as Keshava demonstrates the fact that the Lord is supreme and controller of both Brahma, Rudra and rest of universe. Keshava means one who gives the power of creation and destruction to Brahma and Rudra [and other sets of powers to the demi-Gods]. Like the sun which illuminates the world, Lord Krishna is Keshava.

Arjuna is indicating/requesting to the Lord, that He who provides the light of knowledge to the universe is the right person to guide him in these matters. For there is no one else who can have superior knowledge, than Lord Krishna.

 ಭಗವಾನುವಾಚ ।

ಪ್ರಜಹಾತಿ ಯದಾ ಕಾಮಾನ್ ಸರ್ವಾನ್ ಪಾರ್ಥ ಮನೋಗತಾನ್

ಆತ್ಮನ್ಯೇವಾSತ್ಮನಾ ತುಷ್ಟಃ ಸ್ಥಿತಪ್ರಜ್ಞಸ್ತದೋಚ್ಯತೇ ॥೫೫॥

Sloka 2.55 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannaje Govindacharya)

bhagavānuvāca |

prajahāti yadā kāmān sarvān pārtha manogatān

ātmanyevāStmanā tuṣṭa sthitaprajñastadocyate ||55||

Sloka 2.55 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

O Partha, one who has removed all desires from his mind, and has stationed his mind, thoughts and actions in the Lord; and one who has obtained the Lord grace is called stithapragna.

Explanation:

Lord Krishna describes the person who has achieved state of stitha-pragna who have removed all desires [desires which lead the person astray, not the desire which one might have to achieve God realization]. He would no longer be bothered with external material comforts for he would be happy with his inner bliss where he is able to see the Lord in all glory.

The main reason for a man’s grief is his wrong desires. There is no end to it either. If and when the desired result does not happen, he gets anger. Anger leads him to undertake actions which leads to papha. This leads to mental states which does not allow him to towards true knowledge but leads him to Hell. He would have no idea about the powerful force which resides in him.

One who has reached the state of stitha-pragna would have none of the above problems. He would have no desires of the outside world. He would be quite happy with his inner bliss and have a sense of detachment with the outside world. The happiness he gets internally is many million times more intense than the one obtained from outside world. He would forever be happy. He would not lose his mental stability even when facing great difficulties. He would be mental strong and un vacillating. Therefore, he succeeds.

Lord Krishna calls Arjuna ‘Partha’. In Sanskrit, the word would split as paara-theera-gamanae. One who has swam across the ocean and reached the shores of knowledge/truth. Lord is indicating that Arjuna should have known this fact beforehand.

The next 3 verses indicate how one should remove unwanted desires.

 ದುಃಖೇಷ್ವನುದ್ವಿಗ್ನಮನಾಃ ಸುಖೇಷು ವಿಗತಸ್ಪೃಹಃ।

ವೀತರಾಗಭಯಕ್ರೋಧಃ ಸ್ಥಿತಧೀರ್ಮುನಿರುಚ್ಯತೇ ೫೬॥

Sloka 2.56 and 2.57 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannaje Govindacharya)

dukhevanudvignamanāḥ sukheu vigataspha|

vītarāgabhayakrodha sthitadhīrmunirucyate ||56||

Sloka 2.56 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

One who does not collapse when hit with difficulty, one who does not jump with joy when he obtains happiness, nor does he have any desire, fear, anger is called stitha-pragna.

Explanation:

In life, happiness and grief is like day and night. It’s inevitable and constant. It never leaves anyone alone either. Everyone has to undergo these cycles. There are times when difficulties occur one after another without any gap in-between for relief. Similarly, happiness happens without any warning. We cannot stop difficulty by money nor purchase happiness with money. One should therefore keep calm during the varied situations and proceed with the strong belief in the Lord.

Normally when hit with difficulty, we lose our mental calmness which result in bodily harm/diseases. What is inevitable, one should not lament. For crying for such a situation, would not decrease or eliminate the issue. We should realize that difficult situation is in preparation for upcoming happiness and happiness is in preparation for difficult situation.

It is not that one should not feel happy when the happiness occurs but rather one should not forget oneself when these situations happens. For change of situation is inevitable. One should train the mind to be in equilibrium, when the situations changes, for it’s a cyclic event.

While it is easy to say one should keep the mind in a steady frame and harden it for the events, it’s not easy to practice. The good example of this is when Abhimanyu was killed in the war days after Lord instructed Arjuna. Arjuna collapsed with grief, when he heard of his son’s death.

One should always keep away from these 3 states. Raga-Bhaya-Krodha. Intense desire causes raga [desire]. When the desired object is not obtained it causes grief/disappointment. If the desired object is obtained by a less powerful person, than anger [Krodha]. If it’s obtained by a powerful person then fear [Bhaya]. These are all the games/states in the mind.

Like Lord Vyasa says “In this world nothing has happened which was not intended by the Lord and will not happen in future”. Everything happens because the Lord willed it. It is of little use to worry about the events for it affects the achievement of state of stitha-pragna.

The word Muni means one who has overcome desire and anger. Therefore, one should try to achieve mental equilibrium. Here Lord Krishna is trying to instruct Arjuna to achieve the qualities of a Muni.

ಯಃ ಸರ್ವತ್ರಾನಭಿಸ್ನೇಹಸ್ತತ್ತತ್ ಪ್ರಾಪ್ಯ ಶುಭಾಶುಭಮ್ ।

ನಾಭಿನಂದತಿ ನ ದ್ವೇಷ್ಟಿ ತಸ್ಯ ಪ್ರಜ್ಞಾ ಪ್ರತಿಷ್ಠಿತಾ ೫೭॥

ya sarvatrānabhisnehastattat prāpya śubhāśubham |

nābhinadati na dveṣṭi tasya prajñā pratiṣṭhitā ||57||

Sloka 2.57 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

If the person experiences happiness and grief, those do not get severely attached to the person. He would not get rejoice due to happiness and lament due to difficulty. For his awareness is strong.

Explanation:

Lord Krishna says, do not rejoice when happiness comes your way and do not fall into grief when the difficult situation arrives. Never have over-attachment to either of the situations. Keep your mind steady, for difficulty has not left anyone alone. With a steady mind, one can tolerate both the situations and progress towards Lord.

If we look at the history of the Pandavas, they have undergone various situations which are most difficult even though they were all avatars of demi-Gods. What else can be situations of common populace? Therefore, one should, keeping their mind steady and believing that they have overcome the duality of the situations, without demanding any particular state [knowing its beyond their ability and responsibility], would see their life would become steadier and leads to elevation of soul.

Gynani have this steady state. For an ordinary person controlling the senses is a difficult task initially but with regular practice one can achieve that, leading to progress.

 ಯದಾ ಸಂಹರತೇ ಚಾಯಂ ಕೂರ್ಮೋSನ್ಗಾನೀವ ಸರ್ವಶಃ ।

ಇಂದ್ರಿಯಾಣೀಂದ್ರಿಯಾರ್ಥೇಭ್ಯಸ್ತಸ್ಯ ಪ್ರಜ್ಞಾ ಪ್ರತಿಷ್ಠಿತಾ ೫೮॥

Sloka 2.58 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannaje Govindacharya)

yadā saharate cāya kūrmoSngānīva sarvaśa |

idriyāṇīṃdriyārthebhyastasya prajñā pratiṣṭhitā ||58||

Sloka 2.58 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

Like the tortoise which withdraws the legs within the shell, one who is elevated, withdraws his senses from the sense providing objects.

Explanation:

The senses are the one which primarily takes us on wrong path. The senses take us towards such objects, which are not ideal for our progress. The desire riding on the senses makes us more determined and attract us towards such objects/situations only. We should therefore be like a tortoise, we should also withdraw our five senses from these objects/situations which definitely lead us astray; through the use of our mind and intellect. We should use the same senses to see those objects/situations which will help us to elevate ourselves. We should train our mind to sense only the good of any situation and see the Lord and his miracles in it.

If we practice seeing the glorious universe and the Lord behind it, that thoughts will embed in our mind. We will slowly realize that Lord exists everywhere. We start to see the varied qualities of the Lord. Then the objects/situations cannot mislead us. This is how the gynani sees the world.

We cannot change the world. We cannot control the world. We only realize this truth once we assimilate this knowledge. One should therefore adjust to the world as it is and learn the Lord glory from it. By these actions one can control the sense and strengthen the mind.

 ವಿಷಯಾ ವಿನಿವರ್ತಂತೇ  ನಿರಾಹಾರಸ್ಯ ದೇಹಿನಃ ।

ರಸವರ್ಜಂ ರಸೋSಪ್ಯಸ್ಯ ಪರಂ ದೃಷ್ಟ್ವಾ ನಿವರ್ತತೇ ೫೯॥

Sloka 2.59 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannaje Govindacharya)

viayā vinivartate  nirāhārasya dehina |

rasavarja rasoSpyasya para dṛṣṭvā nivartate ||59||

Sloka 2.59 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

Reducing food, the person attraction, towards sense objects reduces. Even so, it does not reduce the sense for taste and sensual comfort. Even these two will be eliminated when he sees the Lord.

Explanation:

We saw earlier, that in case we need to progress on the path towards Lord, we need to control and make our senses look inward. Making it happen is not easy. While a seeker makes determined efforts and controls the senses, they might weaken but not disappear completely. The sense of taste and sensual remains.

It is therefore recommended that one experience the sensual aspect once in life, before moving away from it forever. That way, the regret that one has not experienced sensual aspects does not remain; preventing progress. One should adopt Brahmacharya system and gain control over it.

Even though the food controls give control over senses, the sense of taste and sensual requires greater efforts. These two are eliminated, once we realize the Lord.

Limited and controlled [Satvic] food helps the seeker in spiritual path. Too much food encourages Tamasic qualities. Food like [Tur dal, onion, garlic, drum stick, beet root, extensive masala, spicy, pungent, non-veg food etc.,] encourages Rajasic qualities. Tamasic and Rajasic food drag a person away from spiritual path.

One should also should not force guests to have excess food for it affects their path of progress. If one consumes food which is left over then, not only would it disturb the body but also disturbs the mind.

 ಯತತೋ ಹ್ಯಪಿ ಕೌಂತೇಯ ಪುರುಷಸ್ಯ ವಿಪಶ್ಚಿತಃ ।

ಇಂದ್ರಿಯಾಣಿ ಪ್ರಮಾಥೀನಿ ಹರಂತಿ ಪ್ರಸಭಂ ಮನಃ ॥೬೦॥

Sloka 2.60 to 2.63 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannaje Govindacharya)

yatato hyapi kauteya puruasya vipaścita |

idriyāṇi pramāthīni harati prasabha mana ||60||

Sloka 2.60 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

Even when the seeker makes great efforts in learning the right path; senses can forcibly disturb the mental equilibrium and take it away from the path.

Explanation:

Even after reading and listening for many years, the path to salvation is not easy. Without the determination and persistence, it’s not even conceivable to be on the path. One should therefore, be brave and be mentally determined. If the mind is not determined, the senses would be completely free. One should not get into the states of desire, disappointment, fear or anger. One should control the life [actions, thoughts etc.,]. Even after realizing the truth of the sacred books, the senses continue to threaten. They create doubts, give numerous reason why to postpone or leave the path. These happen to every seeker.

Even when this appears to be impossible to conquer, Lord Krishna gives very simple solution in the next verse.

 ತಾನಿ ಸರ್ವಾಣಿ ಸಂಯಮ್ಯ ಯುಕ್ತ ಆಸೀತ ಮತ್ ಪರಃ ।

ವಶೇ ಹಿ ಯಸ್ಯೇಂದ್ರಿಯಾಣಿ ತಸ್ಯ ಪ್ರಜ್ಞಾ ಪ್ರತಿಷ್ಠಿತಾ ೬೧॥

tāni sarvāṇi sayamya yukta āsīta mat para |

vaśe hi yasyedriyāṇi tasya prajñā pratiṣṭhitā ||61||

Sloka 2.61 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

Controlling the senses, believing that I am the supreme Lord, with steady mind in Me, one should live. One who is in this steady state, the truth will embed.

Explanation:

Senses drive the mind at various sensual objects. This is the experience of all seekers. They will force one to undertake wrong actions. If we need to overcome the actions of the senses, then they should be trained, like we train horses and get them under the tight control of the mind/intellect.

To make this happen we need to first seek and surrender to the Lord. We should pray to the Lord with firm mind indicating that we have given him all the ownership and responsibility to control our mind and through it the senses. After he is called Hrishikesha. The name denotes, he is the real controller of our senses. This is the promise given by Lord Krishna.

Lord needs to be prayed as follows “Please ensure my senses do not mis-lead me. You be within me motivate and inspire me such that your thoughts remain always and forever in You”. When this surrender is undertaken, Lord will keep his promise and slowly get us the control over our senses, and to fill our mind, thoughts and actions which are pleasing to him.

If one tries to think that he alone with-out the help of Lord would like to overcome the senses and its action, it’s not possible. One should attempt and persist in overcoming the senses but with the help of the Lord. There might be no immediate impact but gradually over a period of time, it will definitely happen. The time here might also mean multiple births. Nothing in the spiritual world is immediate.

Lord Krishna describes in the next verse, how our own mind will drag us down including how the mind works.

ಧ್ಯಾಯತೋ ವಿಷಯಾನ್ ಪುಂಸಃ  ಸಂಗಸ್ತೇಷೂಪಜಾಯತೇ ।

ಸಂಗಾತ್ ಸಂಜಾಯತೇ ಕಾಮಃ ಕಾಮಾತ್ ಕ್ರೋಧೋSಭಿಜಾಯತೇ ॥೬೨॥

dhyāyato viayān pusa  sagasteṣūpajāyate |

sagāt sajāyate kāma kāmāt krodhoSbhijāyate ||62||

Sloka 2.62 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

One who keeps thinking about an object/event, will eventually will be attracted towards it. He then builds a relationship with it. With the relationship, he will desire it. If he does not obtain it, he will get even greater anger/grief because of it.

Explanation:

If we hear about an object/place, we develop interest in it. With the interest, we develop the need to attraction [moha] with it. With the attraction, we feel the need to feel/see it [sparsha]. With the sense of touching it, we feel we need to possess it. With the feeling of possessing it, we feel we need to take whatever actions are required to make it our own. These actions might be already causing us papha.

If we obtain the object, we feel even more possessiveness with it and neglect others. If we don’t obtain it, we either feel dejected or anger. This entire path would disturb the mental equilibrium and cause various diseases [BP etc.,] or situations [Depression etc.,]. Both of which are sure ways to be away from the Lord’s, chosen path.

If we go back to the origin, we realize it was the desire, which caused us to get on to this wrong path. Controlling the desire gives us better chance to succeed.

This cycle of getting to know and with actual result, we have strayed from the path and committed numerous karmas, wasted energy, time and efforts and performed various actions not sanctioned by the Lord. The same could have been utilized towards reaching the Lord.

If the object was Lord then the same could have resulted in elevation of the soul and pleasure of the Lord. The Lord ever merciful would always be with his devotees and the chance to feel dejected or anger would never arise.

 ಕ್ರೋಧಾದ್ ಭವತಿ ಸಮ್ಮೋಹಃ ಸಮ್ಮೋಹಾತ್ ಸ್ಮೃತಿವಿಭ್ರಮಃ ।

ಸ್ಮೃತಿಭ್ರಂಶಾದ್ ಬುದ್ಧಿನಾಶೋ ಬುದ್ಧಿನಾಶಾದ್ ವಿನಶ್ಯತಿ ೬೩॥

krodhād bhavati sammoha sammohāt smtivibhrama |

smtibhraṃśād buddhināśo buddhināśād vinaśyati ||63||

Sloka 2.63 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

With anger we will desire unwanted, with anger state of mind, we will disregard established dharmas, with the state of forgotten path, we will do unwanted actions and finally this leads us to complete destruction.

Explanation:

Once the Kama [means any desire] is reduced, the roots of anger, grief etc., is also reduced. If we train ourselves to see the pro and cons before proceeding with desiring anything, the desire itself will be found to be wrong and chances of making mistakes reduces. If we think through our emotions [mind] instead of intellect the chances of mistakes increase. Including justifying the very wrong actions/thoughts as right ones. This results in thoughts about revenge which is foolish and finally soul heads into Hell – complete destruction.

Once the intellect is lost, then mind is almost dead. Senses will be on their own free will dictating the terms. This is the surest way to Hell and complete destruction of the soul. If we desire to reach the Lord, then we need to understand the Lord in his glory and truth. Seek his protection. Surrender fully to him; allowing Him to guide us along.

If one constantly thinks about the Lord and the right path, soul will get elevated. Therefore, we need to first control our desires, evaluate the pro and cons, reduce or eliminate over attachment.

It does not imply that one should not show any love and affection, rather show it but understand that the over attraction is not required for a seeker. To have a determined mind, but demanding the particular type or intensity of the result, is excessive moha [attraction]. One should have ‘detached attachment’; meaning have the sense of attachment but not over attachment with passion. This is the source of real happiness.

One should always have peaceful mindset. Without it, the results would be both mental and physical problems in the body. We should face any situation without being unduly worried but with the belief that Lord knows the best. How to achieve it, is in the next verse.

ರಾಗದ್ವೇಷವಿಮುಕ್ತೈಸ್ತು ವಿಷಯಾನಿಂದ್ರಿಯೈಶ್ಚರನ್ ।

ಆತ್ಮವಶ್ಯೈರ್ವಿಧೇಯಾತ್ಮಾ ಪ್ರಸಾದಮಧಿಗಚ್ಛತಿ ೬೪॥

Sloka 2.64 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannaje Govindacharya)

rāgadveavimuktaistu viayānidriyaiścaran |

ātmavaśyairvidheyātmā prasādamadhigacchati ||64||

Sloka 2.64 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

One who has overcome anger and revenge, keeping his senses under control, even if he is enjoying the senses will have his mind like crystal clear water.

Explanation:

It does not mean that one should shut his eye to the world and keep away from its activities. Rather the senses continually come back with various inputs. With the steady state of the mind, we should disregard such information and steel it with right knowledge. Practically, even if one has closed the eye, mind still wanders and would be reviewing the previous sights. One should avoid becoming the servant of the senses. This is the message given by Lord Krishna.

Do not get attached to the rewards by the senses, just experience it as it has come. Do not incur desires due to this experience. In this state, it does not matter what the senses come back from, for the mind with intellect does not give them the importance.

An example is, when we meet our friends in the street. We spend time talking about various things and each go on our own way. After sometime we meet another friend, who asks us what was the color of the shirt the first friend was wearing. We will not know and remember it. It is not that our eyes did not see it, just that the mind did not register it, as it was not important enough.

Similarly, if we train the mind to go behind only real truth, rest of the objects though visible to the senses will have no effect on our mind. At this stage, the senses are subordinate to the mind and not vice versa. Such a superior mind, if it picks on the right path will elevate our souls. The soul can then get into Dhyana state, understand the truth properly and would experience happiness. Soul will also get elevated.

 ಪ್ರಸಾದೇ ಸರ್ವದುಃಖಾನಾಂ ಹಾನಿರಸ್ಯೋಪಜಾಯತೇ ।

ಪ್ರಸನ್ನಚೇತಸೋ ಹ್ಯಾಶು ಬುದ್ಧಿಃ ಪರ್ಯವತಿಷ್ಠತಿ ೬೫॥

Sloka 2.65 and 2.66 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannaje Govindacharya)

prasāde sarvadukhānāṃ hānirasyopajāyate |

prasannacetaso hyāśu buddhi paryavatiṣṭhati ||65||

Sloka 2.65 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

Once the mind is like clear water, the seekers loses all his fears, as such, a mind will only seek Lord and remains there.

Explanation:

If the mind has impurities, the world appears to be full of impurities. All problems are due to this situation. If we do not concentrate our mind, all actions are fruitless. Keeping the mind clean is known as ‘madii’ [Kannada word]. Clear mind leads to happiness. All grief disappears on its own. This results in grief less happiness.

A clear mind helps one to understand the Lord. Impure mind can never understand Lord. Once one has understood the Lord, there is no grief. Intellect at this stage will be determined enough to understand the knowledge of the Lord and remain there.

At this stage, all thinking, thoughts lead to Lord only. Irrespective what is viewed or heard, they all represents the miracle of the Lord, who is the universal force behind it. One will not worry about the smaller events and thoughts. The clear mind is filled with Lord. Once the Lord fills the mind, everything becomes happiness. There is no limit to such happiness.

ನಾಸ್ತಿ ಬುದ್ಧಿರಯುಕ್ತಸ್ಯ ನಚಾಯುಕ್ತಸ್ಯ ಭಾವನಾ ।

ನ ಚಾಭಾವಯತಃ ಶಾಂತಿರಶಾಂತಸ್ಯ  ಕುತಃ ಸುಖಮ್ ೬೬॥

nāsti buddhirayuktasya nacāyuktasya bhāvanā |

na cābhāvayata śāṃtiraśāṃtasya  kuta sukham ||66||

Sloka 2.66 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

One who has not controlled the mind, will never have clear mind/clarity. He will be unable to perform Dhyana and without Dhyana [will be unable to focus on Lord] there is no mukthi. Without mukthi where is peace?

Explanation:

To have happiness one needs peace. With a disturbed mind, one cannot reach the Lord. One whose mind is not tuned to Lord, how can he obtain real knowledge. Such a person will not have clear mindset. They will never be able to think clearly. Without thinking with concentration, he will be unable to realize the truth. They will be unable to meditate. Without ability to meditate on the Lord, mukthi is impossible.

Dhyana means thinking about the Lord in a concentrated manner without distraction. Without concentrated effort, we will be unable to understand the object clearly, in its fullest extent. It is mentioned as ‘bhavana’ here in the verse. With the in-depth understanding of the object, we will be unable to realize it in full. The object here being Lord and knowledge about Him.

Shanthi means ‘peace’ and in the larger context means peace forever or Mukthi. One should therefore control the senses, tune the mind to think with intense concentration on the Lord and his qualities, realize the truth and then achieve peace [with peace happiness] forever or mukthi.

When we turn our attention inwards away from the distracting world, we will be able to go deeper into the knowledge and realize the truths.

This is the, first self and later God realization happens. Which then leads to mukthi or permanent peace and happiness.

ಇಂದ್ರಿಯಾಣಾಂ ಹಿ ಚರತಾಂ ಯನ್ಮನೋSನುವಿಧೀಯತೇ ।

ತದಸ್ಯ ಹರತಿ ಪ್ರಜ್ಞಾಂ ವಾಯುರ್ನಾವಮಿವಾಂಭಸಿ ೬೭॥

Sloka 2.67 and 2.68 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannaje Govindacharya)

idriyāṇāṃ hi caratāṃ yanmanoSnuvidhīyate |

tadasya harati prajñāṃ vāyurnāvamivāṃbhasi ||67||

Sloka 2.67 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

If the mind is being swayed by the senses and follows it, the seekers will be led astray, similar to the mighty wind which leads the boats away from the shores.

Explanation:

One wonders why the mind does not naturally turn inwards. Lord Krishna tells it’s the natural behavior of the mind. The mind refuses that which is new and what it is unfamiliar with. Rather it prefers that which it is familiar with and knows well.

The inner world of the soul is unfamiliar to the mind and hence it refuses to withdraw inside naturally. If he commands the mind to see internally it will do it, but we have never told it.

Depending on what we have trained our mind since childhood, the mind follows it. For example, if since child hood we have trained to eat only vegetarian food, the child once he grows up continues it and probably hates all other forms of food. If the child has grown up in the family of butchers, the meat will not cause him any discomfort. It all depends upon how the child [and its mind] has been trained all along.

This is how the mind has been created by Lord. It easily accepts what it is familiar with and trained as. If one is unfamiliar with the mechanism of mind, its becomes dangerous.

This example is very appropriate. If we are travelling in a sail boat, our mind is like sail. Unless we know the art of how to navigate with the sails force the wind takes it away from our objective.

If we fail to learn the art of controlling the senses, life would become disastrous situation, subject to hurricanes all the times.

 ತಸ್ಮಾದ್ ಯಸ್ಯ  ಮಹಾಬಾಹೋ ನಿಗೃಹೀತಾನಿ ಸರ್ವಶಃ ।

ಇಂದ್ರಿಯಾಣೀಂದ್ರಿಯಾರ್ಥೇಭ್ಯಸ್ತಸ್ಯ ಪ್ರಜ್ಞಾ ಪ್ರತಿಷ್ಠಿತಾ ೬೮॥

tasmād yasya  mahābāho nighītāni sarvaśa |

idriyāṇīṃdriyārthebhyastasya prajñā pratiṣṭhitā ||68||

Sloka 2.68 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

O Mahavira, such person whose senses are in control and has overcome the sensual objects, will have the truth clearly known.

Explanation:

Lord Krishna says, the mind which is attracted by the outside worldly objects, goes behind them. Without controlling the senses it’s difficult to control the mind. We should therefore train the senses. If it’s all the more important that we train the children at the young age to the right and wrongs. Once the child has obtained fascinations about the wrongs it’s very difficult to lead them back to right path. With no such moral education available to the present children at the home or at school, the entire generation is growing up without this knowledge.

If the child has been trained since young age with the right knowledge and ability to control impulses/senses, then the mind is naturally trained and Dhyana would be easy. So, would assimilation of the true knowledge and realization.

After describing the state of mind and its working, Lord now goes ahead to answer the original question of Arjuna as to how to recognize, a person who has achieved stitha-pragna.

 ಯಾ ನಿಶಾ ಸರ್ವಭೂತಾನಾಂ ತಸ್ಯಾಂ ಜಾಗರ್ತಿ ಸಂಯಮೀ।

ಯಸ್ಯಾಂ ಜಾಗ್ರತಿ ಭೂತಾನಿ ಸಾ ನಿಶಾ ಪಶ್ಯತೋ ಮುನೇಃ ೬೯॥

Sloka 2.69 and 2.70 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannaje Govindacharya)

yā niśā sarvabhūtānāṃ tasyāṃ jāgarti sayamī|

yasyāṃ jāgrati bhūtāni sā niśā paśyato mune ||69||

Sloka 2.69 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

That which the regular person thinks as night, the one who has achieved control over senses would see it as day. Where others are seeing light, the seeker would see night.

Explanation:

That which for a regular person is day, the truth seeker would find it as night. That which the world feels as night, the seeker would find it as day. The regular worldly affairs would be night for the seeker. He would have little interactions or attractions with the world. He would appear like a innocent child. He might even appear like a idiot or crazy person to normal people – world might have no clue to his inner beauty. For the seeker, he would have found all the happiness internally and would be savoring it.

Once the seeker has found the Lord inside him, everything else is darkness for him. Looking at the beauty of the Lord, he would be mystified and forever involved with it. To seek the Lord, one should be engaged in hearing of Him through the sacred books. After hearing one should keep thinking about the knowledge learnings. One who keeps thinking constantly about the Lord is called “Muni”. For he is the one who has seen the lord or would see him.

In today’s world, to identify such persons is very difficult. Not all the sidda purushas [one who has acquired siddas powers] are real seekers. They are just miracle makers generally. For the real seeker never demonstrate their powers unless it’s extremely necessary to reinforce Lord messages. Those who have constantly strived to understand the truth [Muni] will become stitha-pragna.

 ಆಪೂರ್ಯಮಾಣಮಚಲಪ್ರತಿಷ್ಠಂ ಸಮುದ್ರಮಾಪಃ ಪ್ರವಿಶಂತಿ ಯದ್ವತ್ ।

ತದ್ವತ್ ಕಾಮಾ ಯಂ ಪ್ರವಿಶಂತಿ ಸರ್ವೇ ಸ ಶಾಂತಿಮಾಪ್ನೋತಿ ನ ಕಾಮಕಾಮೀ ॥೭೦॥

āpūryamāṇamacalapratiṣṭha samudramāpa praviśati yadvat |

tadvat kāmā ya praviśati sarve sa śāṃtimāpnoti na kāmakāmī ||70||

Sloka 2.70 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

That which is full, will be motionless; like the ocean which will not overflow even when the mighty rivers flow into it. One in whom the mind is still, will not get disturbed when the various temptations enter him. He achieves mukthi. Not the one who is behind bad desires.

Explanation:

Lord Krishna is giving more detailed information regarding the seeker who has seen Him and seekers behavior. The seekers mind will always be in still and in constant state of happiness. It will be forever in Lord thoughts and glory. His mind will be still like a ocean neither overflowing nor shrinking. Similar to ocean which does not shrink in summer nor overflow in rainy season.

Even when the worldly temptations enter into his mind, they will not disturb his mind, for he is above happiness/grief. He will be at peace. With his concentrated mind, he will achieve Lord. Whereas the one behind various temptations and desires will never reach Him and never find peace.

ವಿಹಾಯ ಕಾಮಾನ್ ಯಃ ಸರ್ವಾನ್ ಪುಮಾಂಶ್ಚರತಿ ನಿಸ್ಪೃಹಃ ।

ನಿರ್ಮಮೋ ನಿರಹಂಕಾರಃ ಸ ಶಾಂತಿಮಧಿಗಚ್ಛತಿ ೭೧॥

Sloka 2.71 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannaje Govindacharya)

vihāya kāmān ya sarvān pumāṃścarati nispha |

nirmamo nirahakāra sa śāṃtimadhigacchati ||71||

Sloka 2.71 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

One who does not surrender to material objects, does not fall for desires, does not have ego and lives, such a person will achieve mukthi.

Explanation:

One who throws away the material comforts and temptations he achieves happiness. He is the real seeker. One who practices, limited food, sleep and sensual comforts; living fearlessly with the sole belief in the Lord’s knowledge and protection, not falling to the temptations, without getting disturbed with the situations - he is the real ‘human being’. He will never have possessiveness like its my or mine. He will reach mukthi.

ಏಷಾ ಬ್ರಾಹ್ಮೀ ಸ್ಥಿತಿಃ ಪಾರ್ಥ ನೈನಾಂ ಪ್ರಾಪ್ಯ ವಿಮುಹ್ಯತಿ ।

ಸ್ಥಿತ್ವಾSಸ್ಯಾಮಂತಕಾಲೇSಪಿ ಬ್ರಹ್ಮ ನಿರ್ಬಾಣಮೃಚ್ಛತಿ ೭೨॥

Sloka 2.72 Audio (Kannada by Poojya Sri Bannaje Govindacharya)

eṣā brāhmī sthiti pārtha naināṃ prāpya vimuhyati |

sthitvāSsyāmatakāleSpi brahma nirbāṇamcchati ||72||

Sloka 2.72 Audio (English Based on Pravachana by Poojya Sri Bannanje Govindacharya)

Gist of the sloka:

O Partha, this is the science of Brahman. This is the identification of an gynani. One who has this knowledge will never go back. One who continues to stay in this state even at the death, will reach the place of non-death.

Explanation:

The state of one who is with the Lord is known as ‘Brahma stithi’. So far Lord Krishna described the characteristics of such a seeker. In such a person, the knowledge and truth about the Lord is permanently etched. One cannot identify such a person through outside visible marks – like dress, marks or ornaments. Only his mental state gives out the clues. One who is forever in the state of bliss about the Lord even at his death will never be reborn.

ಇತಿ ದ್ವಿತೀಯೋSಧ್ಯಾಯಃ

ಎರಡನೆಯ ಅಧ್ಯಾಯ ಮುಗಿಯಿತು

iti dvitīyoSdhyāya

eraaneya adhyāya mugiyitu

ಅಧ್ಯಾಯ ಮೂರು

Chapter 3

ಅರ್ಜುನ ಉವಾಚ ।

ಜ್ಯಾಯಸೀ  ಚೇತ್ ಕರ್ಮಣಸ್ತೇ ಮತಾ ಬುದ್ಧಿರ್ಜನಾರ್ದನ

ತತ್  ಕಿಂ ಕರ್ಮಣಿ ಘೋರೇ ಮಾಂ ನಿಯೋಜಯಸಿ ಕೇಶವ೧॥

arjuna uvāca |

jyāyasī  cet karmaaste matā buddhirjanārdana|

tat  ki karmai ghore māṃ niyojayasi keśava||1||

Gist of the sloka:

O Janardhana, you explained why knowledge [gynana path/yoga] is superior to karma [pure action without Lord invocation]. O Keshava, why then are your forcing me into a war which leads to destruction.

Explanation:

The explanation given by Lord Krishna regarding karma and gynana path has created confusion to Arjuna. He is confused as to which path he needs to choose and what is beneficial for him. Lord Krishna tells him that gynana path is superior and also tells him to get into the war [action/karma]. Arjuna is wondering if gynana is more important, why at all enter into war? War is a tamasic in nature given the gory, whereas gynana path is without influence of tamasic. Both are opposite to each other.

Arjuna uses two different names of the Lord to address him. Hidden in these names are the internal emotions of Arjuna.

Janardhana literally means one who destroys people. People here are evil kind. The destroyer of the evil people is called Janardhana. Arjuna is implying that Lord Krishna who took the avatar to destroy the evil in the world, is indirectly getting the job done through him! Whereas all those who have assembled in this battlefield are not evil. If so, killing those non-evil would not be ideal. You, who give mukthi in your kindness, how come you are using me to kill these Guru’s and seniors?

Keshava, means one who has given the powers of creation and destruction to Brahma and Eshwara. You are the supreme who creates, sustains and destroys the creation and grants mukthi. Arjuna is implying, only you [Lord Keshava] who knows all can clear this confusion to me. This is a token of submission and surrender by Arjuna.

ವ್ಯಾಮಿಶ್ರೇಣ್ಯೇವ ವಾಕ್ಯೇನ ಬುದ್ಧಿಂ ಮೋಹಯಸೀವ ಮೇ ।

ತದೇಕಂ ವದ ನಿಶ್ಚಿತ್ಯ ಯೇನ ಶ್ರೇಯೋಹಮಾಪ್ನುಯಾಮ್೨॥

vyāmiśreyeva vākyena buddhi mohayasīva me |

tadeka vada niścitya yena śreyohamāpnuyām||2||

Gist of the sloka:

This contradiction is sowing seeds of confusion in my mind. Therefore, please decide on one path and let me know that which is beneficial to me.

Explanation:

Arjuna intones to Lord Krishna, that he is very confused and is unable to decide for himself what is the right path between the two. He is incapable of to think and decide for himself “I am unable to understand your opinion. Let me know which path would be beneficial to me”.

ಭಗವಾನುವಾಚ ।

ಲೋಕೇಸ್ಮಿನ್  ದ್ವಿವಿಧಾ ನಿಷ್ಠಾ ಪುರಾ ಪ್ರೋಕ್ತಾ ಮಯಾನಘ ।

ಜ್ಞಾನಯೋಗೇನ ಸಾಂಖ್ಯಾನಾಂ ಕರ್ಮಯೋಗೇನ ಯೋಗಿನಾಮ್ ॥೩॥

bhagavānuvāca |

lokesmin  dvividhā niṣṭhā purā proktā mayānagha |

ānayogena sāṃkhyānāṃ karmayogena yoginām ||3||

Gist of the sloka:

Lord Krishna says: O Anagha, I had previously explained two paths leading to mukthi. For Gynani’s they chose knowledge predominant path and those who like karmas [actions] (karma pradhanigalu] chose karma predominant path.

Explanation:

After having described both the paths, Lord Krishna gives detailed explanation of the path of karma [karma yoga] here. The word ‘nishta’ means the determined path leading to mukthi. There are two types of seekers. Sankhya’s, who chose the path of gyana. Yogi are those who chose the path of karmas.

At the superficial level, it appears as though that Arjuna being form the kshatriya class, action is his predominant trait. It could be the reason that Lord Krishna is asking him to fight the war. In fact, Arjuna was one of the foremost Gynani at that time and a very knowledgeable person. The question then is, why fight the war?

The scriptures clearly tell that to reach mukthi/moksha there is only one path and that is through acquisition of right knowledge. Karma is therefore supplemental to knowledge. Those karmas [actions] which does not help in enhancing the right knowledge are not karmas at all. They are mere actions.

Whatever actions/karmas we do, including for example spending the entire day in chanting the name of God is not real karma unless it was accompanied with right knowledge. Therefore, there is no two paths - only knowledge path or only karma path. One requires the another.

In the chandogya Upanishad, the verse is as follows: Whatever you do, do after fully understanding it. That action accompanied with its knowledge, gives correct result. If not, it’s a wasted action.

One should fully know the reason for doing a particular action, what is the result of such action, how to do it etc., Without knowledge such an action is waste. Lord Krishna, here is describing two paths – knowledge predominant path like Sanakadi rishis and karma predominant path like King Janaka.

ನ ಕರ್ಮಣಾಮನಾರಂಭಾನ್ನೈಷ್ಕರ್ಮ್ಯಂ ಪುರುಷೋಶ್ನುತೇ ।

ನಚ ಸಂನ್ಯಸನಾದೇವ ಸಿದ್ಧಿಂ ಸಮಧಿಗಚ್ಛತಿ೪॥

na karmaṇāmanārabhānnaikarmya puruośnute |

naca sanyasanādeva siddhi samadhigacchati||4||

Gist of the sloka:

One who avoids karmas will not get released from duties of karma. One who just renunciates the result of the karmas will not obtain mukthi either.

Explanation:

Scriptures indicate that karma path results in attachment and knowledge path results in release. Whereas, Lord Krishna says, both the paths are needed. Lord giving explanation, tells us that moksha is obtained by performing renunciation of karmic results.

If karma is leading to attachment, then how can one with this gross body remain idle? With the gross body, action is inevitable. Just because one stopped performing actions, moksha does not happen immediately. Actually, one cannot avoid karmas. Action without knowledge becomes mere, mechanical action. Action with knowledge will never lead to attachment. Just because one renounced the results of the action, no immediate benefit is seen. Without any action, one can never see any release from the cycle of birth/death.

Action is required and inevitable, but such action need to be with right knowledge.

ನಹಿ ಕಶ್ಚಿತ್ ಕ್ಷಣಮಪಿ ಜಾತು ತಿಷ್ಠತ್ಯಕರ್ಮಕೃತ್ ।

ಕಾರ್ಯತೇ ಹ್ಯವಶಃ ಕರ್ಮ ಸರ್ವಃ ಪ್ರಕೃತಿಜೈರ್ಗುಣೈಃ೫॥

nahi kaścit kaamapi jātu tiṣṭhatyakarmakt |

kāryate hyavaśa karma sarva praktijairguai||5||

Gist of the sloka:

No one [alive] can be without some form of action even for a single moment. Everyone without being fully aware of the power of prakruthi [being subordinate to Lord] will be doing karmas.

Explanation:

Mere avoiding karmas, would not provide for mukthi. Even more so, it’s impossible to avoid karmas. Our gross body [1st layer Anna maya sharira/body] and internal body [2nd layer prana maya sharira/body] can never be still. 1st layer needs various body organs to be functioning including blood supply, heart, mind [ever thinking] etc., and we need the 2nd layer to breathe to be alive. This continues even during unconscious state either induced [anesthesia] or naturally occurring. Karmas continues to happen without our knowledge. These are not in control of the soul but rather under the control of the Lord, who originally gave us the body. He owns it and controls it.

The entire universe is created of gross materials by prakruthi. The original ingredients being sattva, rajas and tamas. The body consisting of the 5 gross elements derived from these 3 primaries, responds to the 3 gunas actions, all the time. Therefore, non-action is meaningless.

While doing these actions, we should involve our mind, always on alert in the quest for truth and knowledge. We have to involve ourselves in action as per the universal plan and not be a hindrance to the Lord’s plan. Therefore, action with the right knowledge is the correct path.

ಕರ್ಮೇಂದ್ರಿಯಾಣಿ  ಸಂಯಮ್ಯ ಯ ಆಸ್ತೇ ಮನಸಾ ಚರನ್ ।

ಇಂದ್ರಿಯಾರ್ಥಾನ್ ವಿಮೂಢಾತ್ಮಾ ಮಿಥ್ಯಾಚಾರಃ ಸ ಉಚ್ಯತೇ ॥೬॥

karmedriyāṇi  sayamya ya āste manasā caran |

idriyārthān vimūḍhātmā mithyācāra sa ucyate ||6||

Gist of the sloka:

One who for the outside world shows control over his sense, but mentally seeks them is a deluding himself and is a pretender.

Explanation:

Lord Krishna has very important message in this verse. In the present day, more elaborate the costume, decorations more impressed are the people. They equate the beauty with knowledge. They have no clue as to his real worth which is not visible to outside. We too out of fear, project the image of a piousness which we might not have.

Lord Krishna denounces this as fraud, on the scriptures and dharmas. We first deceive ourselves with these actions. We should never deceive ourselves. We should first have a clean heart and mind, leading to clean actions Without which one cannot elevate ourselves.

To mislead oneself and the world, if one demonstrates control over the senses but internally enjoys them, such a person will never elevate himself and is a deluded person.

ಯಸ್ತ್ವಿಂದ್ರಿಯಾಣಿ ಮನಸಾ ನಿಯಮ್ಯಾರಭತೇರ್ಜುನ ।

ಕರ್ಮೇಂದ್ರಿಯೈಃ ಕರ್ಮಯೋಗಮಸಕ್ತಃ ಸ ವಿಶಿಷ್ಯತೇ ॥೭॥

yastvidriyāṇi manasā niyamyārabhaterjuna |

karmedriyai karmayogamasakta sa viśiyate ||7||

Gist of the sloka:

O Arjuna, one should control the senses through their mind, renouncing the results of actions, one should perform the karmas through the action organs and be elevated.

Explanation:

With a clear mind, one should control the senses tightly. Actions performed thereon would be karma yoga resulting in progress towards realization. The senses in this state would never diverge from the path.

One who performs karmas with his mind clear, then it is the real karma leading to realization. One who engages in such karmas is the exceptional one. They will be transparent without having a difference between inner thoughts and outside actions, they never lose control over their senses, will renounce the results of actions and will rise towards realization.

ನಿಯತಂ ಕುರು ಕರ್ಮ ತ್ವಂ ಕರ್ಮ ಜ್ಯಾಯೋ ಹ್ಯಕರ್ಮಣಃ ।

ಶರೀರಯಾತ್ರಾಪಿ ಚ ತೇ ನ ಪ್ರಸಿದ್ಧ್ಯೇದಕರ್ಮಣಃ೮॥

niyata kuru karma tva karma jyāyo hyakarmaa |

śarīrayātrāpi ca te na prasiddhyedakarmaa||8||

 

Gist of the sloka:

Do your prescribed duty for you. Action is better than in-action. Without action life does not progress.

Explanation:

Lord Krishna says, you must do your duties which is according your swabhava but with the right knowledge. Here Arjuna is known for fighting evil forces all along in his life. He has a long history of protecting the subjects against harm. This is his natural behavior - swabhava.

Arjuna instead if he starts on the path of gynana which is not his natural character, when the evil forces are aligned against the populace, it would be betraying his duty and would not be right yoga.

Lord Krishna teaches that one should therefore never be without action. Do your duty with correct knowledge. Whatever is achieved/result out of such actions, receive it as blessings from the Lord. Be aware of the Lord always with the belief that the action/karma is undertaken by you, is due the grace of Lord. When we realize that, results of such action belong to the Lord; such actions will never become binding on you or result in attachment. Such actions elevate you.

Do your duty. Whatever comes receive it as blessings. Never lose the sight of Lord feet,

Lord Hari is the supreme. Lord Hari is the refuge of gurus.

Lord Hari is the father and mother of this universe.

As long as we are in this body, action is inevitable. Even when we receive enlightenment or right knowledge, actions are inevitable. Lord Krishna gave his theory of karma yoga in this verse.

We also need to realize one more truth. Scriptures indicate karmas create attachments and stop the progress of our souls. One action leads to another and we will be trapped in the karmic cycle. Lord also tells that inaction is not possible and action is must. How else can we escape from this cycle? The next verse gives better clarity on this.

ಯಜ್ಞಾರ್ಥಾತ್ ಕರ್ಮಣೋನ್ಯತ್ರ ಲೋಕೋಯಂ ಕರ್ಮಬಂಧನಃ ।

ತದರ್ಥಂ ಕರ್ಮ ಕೌಂತೇಯ ಮುಕ್ತಸಂಗಃ ಸಮಾಚರ ೯॥

yajñārthāt karmaonyatra lokoya karmabadhana |

tadartha karma kauteya muktasaga samācara ||9||

Gist of the sloka:

One who walks in the direction where the karmas have no reference to Lord, will forever be trapped in the karmic cycle. O Kauntaeya, renounce the rewards of actions and dedicate the actions as worship of the Lord.

Explanation:

The world is trapped into karmic cycle. Even so, all karmas are not binding the souls to karmic cycle. Whatever actions we take, it should be with the awareness of the Lord. We are puppets in his hands. He is the director. With this alertness, if one performs his actions, those actions will not be binding to him and will become, instead our yagna to the Lord.

We breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon-di-oxide. We are not in aware of how all these happen. What we let out, the plants take it as food and what it lets out, becomes our vital air. All this is the Lord mysterious creation.

In fact, we in India recognize the enormous potential for oxygen generation that peepul tree has and hence worship it and believe the Lord has kept his special potential to this tree. Similarly, if we start seeing the special Lord potential in the objects around us, it itself becomes a way of worship of Lord. Then actions will not become binding or hindrance.

Yagna here means “yaja-deva-pooja” or worship of Lord. One who receives the worship is also called ‘yagna’. The fire sacrifice alone is not yagna but any action which worships the Lord. We are not to change our view about karma but the way we look at those karmas [as related to worship of Lord].

Karma can be split as “ka+ma”. Ka means kara or tax. It is the tax we need to pay to the Lord for being subjects of his kingdom. Lord does not need tax in form of money. He has little use for it. The worship we do to him is the tax which we pay. These could be actions we do to benefit the society at large to individual actions – all being done with Lord in mind. This clears the path to moksha.

Lord addresses Arjuna as ‘Kauntaeya’. There is a specific reason why Lord Krishna addressed Arjun like this. Kunti [Arjuna’s mother] even though born in a big rich family never once had the opportunity to live in the richness and comforts. All her life, she spent in one form of difficulty or another, including majority of time in forest. She was never given her proper place in the kingdom. When finally, the children conquered the kingdom, it was time for her to withdraw to forest for her last days. All along she was the one, filling the children with motivation, reminding them of their duties etc., When Lord Krishna asked what she wanted as a boon, she asked for difficulties in life. For she said it was only then that one remembered the Lord. She wanted to remember the Lord at all times. She is an embodiment of how a person should conduct himself in all difficulties and when happiness occurs.

Lord Krishna is reminding Arjuna, of how his mother conducted herself through her karma yoga. Continuing Lord Krishna gives a small explanation of how one should conduct.

ಸಹಯಜ್ಞಾಃ ಪ್ರಜಾಃ ಸೃಷ್ಟ್ವಾ ಪುರೋವಾಚ ಪ್ರಜಾಪತಿಃ ।

ಅನೇನ ಪ್ರಸವಿಷ್ಯಧ್ವಮೇಷ ವೋಸ್ತ್ವಿಷ್ಟಕಾಮಧುಕ್೧೦॥

sahayajñāḥ prajāḥ sṛṣṭvā purovāca prajāpati |

anena prasaviyadhvamea vostviṣṭakāmadhuk||10||

Gist of the sloka:

In earlier times, Prajapathi created all beings along with humans and instructed them about yagna, as follows: Elevate yourselves and it will fulfill your wishes.

Explanation:

Prajapathi created humans with thinking capacity. He also instructed them about the various actions that they should perform. He informed them that, they would obtain all that they desire by performing these karmas. Like wish giving Kamdhenu.

Yagna is action, in form of worship to Lord dedicated to Lord. Dhaana [donation/present/gift] and sangathikarana [assembly of interested people in devotion, worship or for knowledge about Lord].

Dhaana really means, that which, one having fulfilled his needs, when he is left with extra gives it to the needy. This could be food, money, vehicle, medicine etc., One whose heart melts, when seeing others distress is dhaana.

ದೇವಾನ್ ಭಾವಯತಾನೇನ ತೇ ದೇವಾ ಭಾವಯಂತು ವಃ ।

ಪರಸ್ಪರಂ ಭಾವಯಂತಃ ಶ್ರೇಯಃ ಪರಮವಾಪ್ಸ್ಯಥ೧೧॥

devān bhāvayatānena te devā bhāvayatu va |

paraspara bhāvayata śreya paramavāpsyatha||11||

Gist of the sloka:

With the performance of the yagna, you would nourish the demi-Gods [devatas] and they in turn would nourish you. Helping each other, to obtain bliss.

Explanation:

Brahma after creation, directed the humankind, to perform yagna, to nourish the demi-Gods who would then bless the mankind of their desires. Thereby, completing the cycle and enriching each other.

It is a sense of false imagination, that we believe we can do and obtain things ourselves. Rather what we do is just plant the seeds and water it. Prakruthi [nature] with the guidance of the Lord determines which seed germinates and how. Lord does his miracles through the demi-Gods in many ways. Behind all is the force of Lord.

Behind every organ of our body, is a force of demi-Gods [who in turn are guided by Lord]. Without their grace and benevolence, we are incapable of anything. Lord has given us many organs like eyes, ears, tongue etc., all with the intention that we utilize them to seek good hear good and speak good. The good here being that which helps us to, elevate our souls – or the right knowledge about Lord. All of these are happening because of the presence of the demi-Gods and their benevolence. We should therefore be grateful to these demi-Gods who are members of the Lord’s family. We, by praying to them show our respect and they in turn bless us.

We generally consider worship through fire [fire sacrifice] as yagna. The reason being fire is the most pure, sacred visible and accessible object to mankind. All others like water, earth is in some form or fashion have some impurities. Fire has none. No matter what is put into it, it purifies it and reduces it to ash. If we dream of seeing something being actually taken in by the Lord, fire is the means for it. Fire is also the direct representation of the Lord. Lord himself is like a bright spark of light of knowledge. Fire represents such Lord. Worship of the fire within him is Agni Narayana, is yagna. Without this concept in our mind, we are only breathing in smoke and is a worthless effort.

Offering to the Agni Narayana reaches Surya Narayana [Lord within Sun]. The sun thereon provides the sustaining energy to the world. The reason the yagna is done in the daytime is to ensure the 7 [VIBGYOR] bright lights from the yagna fire matches the 7 bright lights of the sun.

ಇಷ್ಟಾನ್ ಭೋಗಾನ್ ಹಿ ವೋ ದೇವಾ ದಾಸ್ಯಂತೇ ಯಜ್ಞಭಾವಿತಾಃ ।

ತೈರ್ದತ್ತಾನಪ್ರದಾಯೈಭ್ಯೋ ಯೋ ಭುಂಕ್ತೇ ಸ್ತೇನ ಏವ ಸಃ೧೨॥

iṣṭān bhogān hi vo devā dāsyate yajñabhāvitāḥ |

tairdattānapradāyaibhyo yo bhukte stena eva sa||12||

Gist of the sloka:

By performing such yagnas, the demi-Gods obtain strength. Who then bless you with the desired. We should therefore offer the objects to the demi-Gods, for not doing so it would be thievery.

Explanation:

What we need, is being given to us by this prakruthi. When we use such resources, we need to be grateful. Instead if we claim ownership & have ego over it, we are like thieves and will never elevate ourselves.

ಯಜ್ಞಶಿಷ್ಟಾಶಿನಃ ಸಂತೋ ಮುಚ್ಯಂತೇ  ಸರ್ವಕಿಲ್ಬಿಷೈಃ ।

ಭುಂಜತೇ  ತೇ ತ್ವಘಂ ಪಾಪಾ ಯೇ ಪಚಂತ್ಯಾತ್ಮಕಾರಣಾತ್೧೩॥

yajñaśiṣṭāśina sato mucyate  sarvakilbiai |

bhujate  te tvagha pāpā ye pacatyātmakāraṇāt||13||

Gist of the sloka:

What is left out, after offering to the demi-Gods, will remove all the sins. One who eats his own food without offering the same to others, is like eating one own’s sins.

Explanation:

One who accepts what comes his way, then offers the same to the Lord and then takes it, will be removed of all sins, from such actions. They will over period of time remove all their sins and will obtain release. Those who cook for themselves and eat it without offering it to Lord, are only eating their own sins.

We need to understand, that the food itself has been given to us by the Lord. We need to show our gratitude to the Lord by first offering it to Him, such a sanctified food is sin free and actually enhances our mental ability and nearness to Him.

Instead if we believe, it’s my earning, my hard work/money, which brought the food to me etc., we are only increasing our sinful load. If we neglect the force which brought us the food, we might even lose what we have. No one helps an ungrateful person.

ಅನ್ನಾದ್ ಭವಂತಿ ಭೂತಾನಿ ಪರ್ಜನ್ಯಾದನ್ನಸಂಭವಃ ।

ಯಜ್ಞಾದ್ ಭವತಿ ಪರ್ಜನ್ಯೋ ಯಜ್ಞಃ ಕರ್ಮಸಮುದ್ಭವಃ೧೪॥

annād bhavati bhūtāni parjanyādannasabhava |

yajñād bhavati parjanyo yajña karmasamudbhava||14||

Gist of the sloka:

Human survival is due to food, food is grown due to sunlight, sustained sunlight along with clouds is due to yagna; and yagna is due to karma.

Explanation:

Karma here meaning action with right knowledge. Sun attracts the water into the cloud. The cloud then delivers the water at the appropriate time to the fields. The fields then produce the food, which sustains humankind.

ಕರ್ಮ ಬ್ರಹ್ಮೋದ್ಭವಂ ವಿದ್ಧಿ ಬ್ರಹ್ಮಾಕ್ಷರಸಮುದ್ಭವಮ್ ।

ತಸ್ಮಾತ್ ಸರ್ವಗತಂ ಬ್ರಹ್ಮ ನಿತ್ಯಂ ಯಜ್ಞೇ ಪ್ರತಿಷ್ಠಿತಮ್ ೧೫॥

karma brahmodbhava viddhi brahmākarasamudbhavam |

tasmāt sarvagata brahma nitya yajñe pratiṣṭhitam ||15||

Gist of the sloka:

Karmas originate from the Lord. Lord is obtained by following the Veda's. Therefore, Lord is always present in the yagna.

Explanation:

The Veda's indicate the exact way the karmas/yagna have to be performed. The yagna in turn, is the form of worship of the Lord. Lord is present everywhere and in every object. Lord also being present in the yagna, receives our worship and blesses us with the right knowledge and with performance of right karmas, leads us to mukthi.

ಏವಂ ಪ್ರವರ್ತಿತಂ ಚಕ್ರಂ ನಾನುವರ್ತಯತೀಹ ಯಃ।

ಅಘಾಯುರಿಂದ್ರ ಯಾರಾಮೋ ಮೋಘಂ ಪಾರ್ಥ ಸ ಜೀವತಿ ೧೬॥

eva pravartita cakra nānuvartayatīha ya|

aghāyuridra yārāmo mogha pārtha sa jīvati ||16||

Gist of the sloka:

While the cycle of the time continues, one who is forever swimming in the sinful state, enjoying the sensual aspects and forgetting himself, O Partha, his life is wasted.

Explanation:

Like explained in the earlier verse 3:11; the cycle goes on as follows.

Mankind -> food -> rains -> yagna -> Lord -> Veda's -> mankind

All karmas need to be done with dedication, sincerity and with the belief it’s the Lord who is making it happen and we offer it as a form of worship to the Lord himself. This is what the Veda's also purport. If there is action without Lord in it, then it is not considered viable karma at all. Lord resides in the Veda's and to such a Lord the karmas need to be offered. This is karma yoga.

Knowing the Veda does not mean just knowing the words. It means knowing the meaning of each letter, for each of them gives out the quality of the Lord. With such Vedic mantras and with the awareness that it represents and denotes qualities of the Lord, if an yagna is conducted, then such worship is accepted by the Lord. When such worship happens, Lord provides for food to the mankind, who otherwise cannot survive.

This is the universal cyclic progress. If anyone stops from participating or prevents the cycle from continuing, then such a person has committed a grave crime against the Lord and would be trapped in the karmic cycle of birth/death for ever.

If we retain the universal cyclic knowledge in our day to day life, our life would be satisfactory. We should also remember the universal force, so that our progress continues. We need not fear anything, and our entire activities would be like worship/yagna.

We should train our minds to think and be conscious of this universal cycle. This will be real karma yoga. This would lead us to moksha and Lord.

The entire universe is interconnected and inter dependent. No one is independent of other. Even in minor action, the forces of the universe are in play. Even behind the food we have, we can see multitude of forces at play. Remembering this aspect, is like paying respect to the universal force/Lord.

Lord Krishna has clearly given us the view, about our duties in the universal cycle, yagna and karma yoga. A question now might arise as to which one of the path is sacred and should be followed. He said earlier that gyana/knowledge path was sacred. Whereas Lord Krishna also told that one cannot get away from karmas. Lord Krishna takes up this very question in the next verse and clarifies.

Scriptures says one who has achieved the highest gynana need not do karma. If one does yagna in his mind, is it karma? If he does not do karma is it a lapse? Which state allows a person not to have attachment to the karmas? Before attaining moksha, does one need to do karma in his householder life? Can one do everything internally? Etc., is answered by Lord.

ಯಸ್ತ್ವಾತ್ಮರತಿರೇವ ಸ್ಯಾದಾತ್ಮತೃಪ್ತಶ್ಚ ಮಾನವಃ।

ಆತ್ಮನ್ಯೇವ ಚ ಸಂತುಷ್ಟಸ್ತಸ್ಯ ಕಾರ್ಯಂ ನ ವಿದ್ಯತೇ೧೭॥

yastvātmaratireva syādātmatptaśca mānava|

ātmanyeva ca satuṣṭastasya kārya na vidyate||17||

Gist of the sloka:

One who has seen the Lord, one who has been blessed by Lord, one who has surrendered to Lord, will forever be in happiness due to Lord and will remain in the bliss. He need not do karmas.

Explanation:

One who has seen the Lord and remains in that divine bliss is called ‘Atma rathi’. One can reach this state through samadhi state also. One who is in this state will not have his mind and senses working. All his thoughts, feelings would be at his soul level. Soul based in knowledge will then be able to see the Lord who is also knowledge. Knowledge eye seeing knowledge Lord. This is called samadhi state.

Gross eye cannot see objects of knowledge. In this state of ‘Atma rathi’, the communication with the Lord is direct. One who has already achieved this state and seeing the Lord need not do any karmas. He would not be interested in worldly karmas for he will be in bliss. He would be beyond the rules and regulations required for ordinary humans. One performs various scriptural karmas in order to see the Lord, whom this person is already seeing.

ನೈವ ತಸ್ಯ ಕೃತೇನಾರ್ಥೋ ನಾಕೃತೇನೇಹ ಕಶ್ಚನ ।

ನಚಾಸ್ಯ ಸರ್ವಭೂತೇಷು ಕಶ್ಚಿದರ್ಥವ್ಯಪಾಶ್ರಯಃ೧೮॥

naiva tasya ktenārtho nākteneha kaścana |

nacāsya sarvabhūteu kaścidarthavyapāśraya||18||

Gist of the sloka:

Such a person need not perform any karmas nor perform any karmas, for both such state has no prohibiting effect on him. He will not have any dependence on anyone.

Explanation:

In this samadhi state, he will have no hunger, thirst or awareness of the world. In such a state, he will neither gain anything more by doing karma or lose anything due to lack of doing karma. He will have no obligation to do any karma either.

He will not need the pancha boothas [earth, water, air, fire and sky] or the five koshas [bodies]. He would have no affection towards the populace nor enmity. He would have no obligations to the world. He would be forever immersed in the Lord and would have no obligatory karmas.

ತಸ್ಮಾದಸಕ್ತಃ ಸತತಂ ಕಾರ್ಯಂ ಕರ್ಮ ಸಮಾಚರ ।

ಅಸಕ್ತೋ ಹ್ಯಾಚರನ್ ಕರ್ಮ ಪರಮಾಪ್ನೋತಿ ಪೂರುಷಃ೧೯॥

tasmādasakta satata kārya karma samācara |

asakto hyācaran karma paramāpnoti pūrua||19||

Gist of the sloka:

Therefore, renouncing the attachments to rewards, perform your duty sincerely. With such actions, one will reach Lord.

Explanation:

With all the reason given, one must perform their duties sincerely. Whatever needs to be done, do it without fail. But, do it after renouncing the rewards, without ego and by offering it as a worship to Lord. When doing your karmas like this, it would take you towards Lord.

Performing, with the renunciation and as a worship of Lord, would never let you back into the karmic cycle. This is the method to perform the karmas and reach the Lord. Instead, by renouncing the karmas, itself one cannot reach the Lord.

The word ‘purusha’ mentioned here, indicates one who is residing in a fully formed body [human body]. One who utilizes this body to the fullest extent [sadhaka purusha] towards karma yoga, is ‘purusha’.

ಕರ್ಮಣೈವ ಹಿ ಸಂಸಿದ್ಧಿಮಾಸ್ಥಿತಾ ಜನಕಾದಯಃ ।

ಲೋಕಸಂಗ್ರಹಮೇವಾಪಿ ಸಂಪಶ್ಯನ್ ಕರ್ತುಮರ್ಹಸಿ ೨೦॥

karmaaiva hi sasiddhimāsthitā janakādaya |

lokasagrahamevāpi sapaśyan kartumarhasi ||20||

Gist of the sloka:

Being in the karma yoga itself, King Janaka achieved his goal - educating the populace about the duty to perform one’s duty, do yours.

Explanation:

Ancient Raja rishis have walked in this path of karma yoga and have achieved mukthi. They never renounced their duty and entered the forest. The good example of such a Raja rishi is King Janaka. Lord Krishna says, that these rishis by performing karma yoga itself obtained right knowledge, and continuing to perform their duties, rose to the level of mukthi; not by renouncing the performance of their duties. Lord says, being a responsible model for the populace, perform your duties and show to the world how it needs to be done.

King Janaka, was a great king ruling over a prosperous kingdom. He had every kind of comforts and richness possible. He was also a great gynani of his times. When Shukhacharya, son of Lord Vyasa [Veda Vyasa rishi or Krishna Dwaipayana] approached his father to instruct him on detachment, Lord Vyasa asked him to meet King Janaka.

When Shukhacharya met him, the King asked him to be housed at a cottage and gave him all the comforts. He did not attempt to meet him. This went on for over a week. The King was observing him to see if he would be tempted with the comforts or would lose control and become angry. When that did not happen, King warmly welcomed the son of Lord Vyasa and instructed him accordingly. This was in a way, for the King to test, if the student was ready for such lessons.

In the second instance, King was in midst of a chess game when fire broke out in the city of Mithila his capital. The guards rushed to the king and told him: Your Mithila is burning down. The King calmly replied that they were wrong. The City of Mithila existed before him and would continue to do so after him. Mithila did not belong to him. That was the nature of his mind, which did not get disturbed at the news nor was he attached to any material objects. He as his duty as the king, did provide the subjects necessary materials, money and comfort to overcome the burning of their homes etc., He looked at himself as a custodian not as an owner.

This and many more, is the reason why Lord Krishna to invoke the King’s name in Gita.

ಯದ್ಯದಾಚರತಿ ಶ್ರೇಷ್ಠಸ್ತತ್ತದೇವೇತರೋ ಜನಃ ।

ಸ ಯತ್ ಪ್ರಮಾಣಂ ಕುರುತೇ ಲೋಕಸ್ತದನುವರ್ತತೇ೨೧॥

yadyadācarati śreṣṭhastattadevetaro jana |

sa yat pramāṇa kurute lokastadanuvartate||21||

Gist of the sloka:

Whatever the leader does, the followers follow him. Whatever he uses as a reference, the world uses the same.

Explanation:

One who has been recognized as a senior in the society, one who is looked at as a knowledgeable person in scriptures, one who can provide guidance to the society, such a person is followed by rest of the society blindly. Not everyone has time, patience or skill to understand the scriptures and adhere to it. Due to which, the rest of the population, mirrors the actions of the leader with a blind assumption he would know what he is doing. This means more responsibility on the shoulders of the leader to be responsible for all; through his behavior and practices.

Arjuna is a recognized leader in the society and there is a need for him to be model for rest. We see this happening every day in our lives. We see great institutions being reduced to dust due to wrong leadership. Loss of - moral high or lack of dedication to duty and sincerity being the primary cause.

It is the human weakness that they get attracted and follow the bad examples much more due to its attractiveness [quicker happiness] than good examples [ as it requires mental stability, determination, persistence etc.,]. If a very good teacher teaches the subject well, but also smokes, the children remember the example of smoking much more than the subject. They will then imitate him. Therefore, the responsibility and ability to persist in the right path is much more important for the leader.

ನ ಮೇ ಪಾರ್ಥಾಸ್ತಿ ಕರ್ತವ್ಯಂ ತ್ರಿಷು ಲೋಕೇಷು ಕಿಂಚನ ।

ನಾನವಾಪ್ತಮವಾಪ್ತವ್ಯಂ ವರ್ತ ಏವ ಚ ಕರ್ಮಣಿ೨೨॥

na me pārthāsti kartavya triu lokeu kicana |

nānavāptamavāptavya varta eva ca karmai||22||

Gist of the sloka:

O Partha, there is nothing that I need to do in the 3 worlds, nor receive any benefit by doing so. I still involve myself in action, to set the model for the world.

Explanation:

O Partha, I am ever vigilant to the fact that the universe sees in Me, as a model to follow. Even though there is nothing that the universe can give me, nor I need from the universe, I still perform my actions, to set the example for the world.

Please note, Lord Krishna was known to diligently perform his obligatory rituals like Sandhyavandhana 3 times daily and other sacrifices and worship. He was known to wash the feet of the elders, welcome them personally, if required take them personally around Dwaraka and even send them off. The story of Kuchela/Sudhama his childhood friend needs to be remembered here.

ಯದಿ ಹ್ಯಹಂ ನ ವರ್ತೇಯಂ ಜಾತು ಕರ್ಮಣ್ಯತಂದ್ರಿತಃ

ಮಮ ವರ್ತ್ಮಾನುವವರ್ತಂತೇ ಮನುಷ್ಯಾಃ ಪಾರ್ಥ ಸರ್ವಶಃ ೨೩॥

yadi hyaha na varteya jātu karmayatadrita|

mama vartmānuvavartate manuyāḥ pārtha sarvaśa ||23||

Gist of the sloka:

If I don’t do the karmas, the entire populace will go astray. I will be then responsible for impurities in the dharmic way and I would have misled them.

Explanation:

In the above 3 verses, Lord Krishna makes an example out of himself for the world. Lord Krishna who was the charioteer to Arjuna tells him: “I have nothing to gain out of this universe or by performing karmas. Neither would lack of undertaking the karmas, impact me”.

For the Lord who forever is involved in the creation, sustenance and destruction of the universe on a daily basis, there is nothing that the universe can give which the Lord does not have. He rather performs the actions due to the kindness and benevolence he has over the created beings. Not for any personal benefit.

If the Lord had not set the example of being involved in the activities, the world would have taken non-action/idleness as the model [disregarding that Lord need not do any karmas] and blindly follow the non-action as the right example for themselves. Lord therefore appeared in the world as a normal person with responsibilities, duties and action.

Lord says that in case he does not do the required karmas, the world would have lost the concept behind performance of the karmas and would forever be trapped in karmic cycle. The universal order would be disturbed. Whatever is the prescribed as duty of a person, they must do it without fail. This is the system of universe. Otherwise, everyone would do whatever they prefer, which creates chaos, disturbing the universal order.

ಉತ್ಸೀದೇಯುರಿಮೇ ಲೋಕಾ ನ ಕುರ್ಯಾಂ ಕರ್ಮ ಚೇದಹಮ್ ।

ಸಂಕರಸ್ಯ ಚ ಕರ್ತಾ ಸ್ಯಾಮುಪಹನ್ಯಾಮಿಮಾಃ ಪ್ರಜಾಃ೨೪॥

utsīdeyurime lokā na kuryāṃ karma cedaham |

sakarasya ca kartā syāmupahanyāmimāḥ prajāḥ||24||

Gist of the sloka:

O Bharatha, those who have no understanding of the result, renunciate karma but still undertakes it, similarly, those who are aware of the renunciate karmas, need to do it. One should have no attachment with the results of the action and should set the example for the world.

Explanation:

Those who are ignorant perform actions which are attached to the rewards. Whereas, those who are aware of the proper way [karma detached from results] must perform karma [karma yoga]. One should perform his duties with detachment to the results believing that “I will be satisfied with whatever the Lord gives me, and I only do it as a service to the Lord”. This is real karma yoga.

ಸಕ್ತಾಃ ಕರ್ಮಣ್ಯವಿದ್ವಾಂಸೋ ಯಥಾ ಕುರ್ವಂತಿ  ಭಾರತ।

ಕುರ್ಯಾದ್ ವಿದ್ವಾಂಸ್ತಥಾಸಕ್ತಶ್ಚಿಕೀರ್ಷುರ್ಲೋಕಸಂಗ್ರಹಮ್೨೫॥

saktāḥ karmayavidvāṃso yathā kurvati  bhārata|

kuryād vidvāṃstathāsaktaścikīrurlokasagraham||25||

ನ ಬುದ್ಧಿಭೇದಂ ಜನಯೇದಜ್ಞಾನಾಮ್  ಕರ್ಮಸಂಗಿನಾಮ್  ।

ಜೋಷಯೇತ್ ಸರ್ವಕರ್ಮಾಣಿ ವಿದ್ವಾನ್ ಯುಕ್ತಃ ಸಮಾಚರನ್೨೬॥

na buddhibheda janayedajñānām  karmasaginām  |

joayet sarvakarmāṇi vidvān yukta samācaran||26||

Gist of the sloka:

For those who are ignorant of real karma [yoga] and who are attached to rewards, should not be discouraged. One who is wise and understands the karma yoga, by performing his actions, should set an example for them to follow.

Explanation:

Society consists of variety of people with different mentalities and maturities. Each will behave according to what they believe in. For one who has the right knowledge, they might appear as superstition.

Seeing such situation, one should not jump in to humiliate them. A person might be worshipping a bland stone after giving it a name of demi-God. He would have immense belief that the rock is protecting him at all times. He would have surrendered to such a rock. Maybe it’s not the prescribed way as per the scriptures and might be prohibited also.

One should not mock them or humiliate them. They would be surviving the great difficulties because of their belief, probably passed on by generations. Lord who is the source of all sounds, words and entire universe would also be present in such rock and accepting the worship. Lord would also be delivering the protection/blessings through such a rock.

One should never mock such people. Rather, over a period of time, by setting the example by personal behavior and by giving right knowledge, those people should be corrected. Even such action should be done with complete detachment of the results and belief in Lord.

ಪ್ರಕೃತೇಃ ಕ್ರಿಯಮಾಣಾನಿ ಗುಣೈಃ ಕರ್ಮಾಣಿ ಸರ್ವಶಃ  ।

ಅಹಂಕಾರವಿಮೂಢಾತ್ಮಾ ಕರ್ತಾಹಮಿತಿ ಮನ್ಯತೇ೨೭॥

prakte kriyamāṇāni guai karmāṇi sarvaśa  |

ahakāravimūḍhātmā kartāhamiti manyate||27||

Gist of the sloka:

Prakruthi provides the body and the sense organs. One does all actions through them. They instead forget that, in their ego and believes they did it themselves.

Explanation:

The sloka opens up different doors of knowledge. Lord Krishna is indicating that one should not have ego to say, “I did it”. This is conceit and wrong. Believing so would lead to his downfall.

For, all actions in the universe is actually done by the Lord and He is the real doer in all. No one has independent action except the Lord. Everyone’s action though happening through them, is originating in Lord. Believing so in the Lord would elevate a person.

This gross body [pindanda], is created by prakruthi. To enable the body, there are sense organs for sensing and organs for actions provided. The primary senses [prakruthi provided] are: Sound [sky/space], Sparsha (touch) [air], rasa (taste) [water], roopa (vision) [agni/fire] and gandha (smell) [earth]. They are primarily sensed through Ear, Skin, Tongue, Eye and Nose.

Therefore, to believe that these have been achieved by oneself through self-effort is meaningless. For example, we believe we see/enjoy through our eyes. We need to remember the eye was but an instrument which saw an object which was placed in front of it by the Lord. We did not create the object, Lord did. We saw and enjoyed what was kept in front of us by the Lord. If we created the eye, can we then create the same to someone who is blind?

Similar is the case, if one has a lovely voice. We did not create the voice box which creates the sound, rather someone designed and gave it to us; for us to use it. That design was by the Lord and given to us by Lord. We now realize that the behind every action there is universal force at work.

Prakruthi is non-living [jadha] and has no desire of its own. Whereas those with soul [chetana], are living things having their own desires. A soul has its own swabhava [characteristics] which are unique to each living being. Our every action is in alignment with our swabhava and desire. We have desire but no independence of action.

The seeds by themselves cannot grow. The farmer plants, waters it and then the seeds grow according to their swabhava. Similar is our case with the farmer being the Lord.

The only entity which has both independence of action and desire is Lord Krishna himself. He desires and action happens. Our actions therefore are controlled by the Lord and not by us. We are one of the spokes in the universal cycle controlled and desired by the Lord.

To therefore, to have the ego to say “I did it” is meaningless. We neither have control over our birth nor death – or any action in-between. We need to remember this along with the fact that prakruthi has no desire or action by itself, whereas we can desire but have no independent action.

ತತ್ತ್ವವಿತ್ತು ಮಹಾಬಾಹೋ ಗುಣಕರ್ಮವಿಭಾಗಯೋಃ

ಗುಣಾ ಗುಣೇಷು ವರ್ತಂತ ಇತಿ ಮತ್ವಾ ನ ಸಜ್ಜತೇ೨೮॥

tattvavittu mahābāho guakarmavibhāgayo|

guṇā gueu vartata iti matvā na sajjate||28||

Gist of the sloka:

O Mahavira, one who is aware of the senses and karmas because of right knowledge, will never try to get attached to the karmas or its results.

Explanation:

One who has understood the right knowledge [tattva or truth], would need to be aware of the senses, their qualities [gunas] and types of karmas. The gunas are classified as Satvic, Rajasic and Tamasic. The actions derived out of these gunas are based on the relative actions of these gunas. Actions we are doing now could be due to the past attachment with these gunas. We should therefore be detached from our own actions and view it as a spectator. This is related to the science of the mind psychology. Lord Krishna calls Arjuna as “Maha bhaho”, meaning mighty armed Arjuna. It also means [mahat mahatithi - maha bhaho], one who has in his heart/and

understands the universal truth. Lord is implying that Arjuna with this knowledge should proceed forward.

We should analyze the action with the knowledge, that these actions have the influence of the 3 gunas and understand their influences in greater detail. We will slowly realize the influences and the impact it has on the actions. We then will slowly lose the ownership of the actions and realize the truth. The truth being: actions, the 3 gunas influencing the actions, our swabhava are influenced by the 3 gunas and the influence of the Lord [right knowledge] over all others. All these influences the actions.

Jadha [non-living] has only action. Soul/living being has both action and desire intentional action. Lord has - independent intentional action. This is the categorization of karmas. One who can differentiate between guna and karma segregation knows the truth. With this knowledge, one will be removed of his ego – ‘I did it’.

For a real example, watch a person speaking with wisdom/knowledge. When he speaks, he speaks with deep meaning. The words do not flow out irresponsibly. The words have to come out of his mouth, which have to be formed first, he has to have the right emotions attached to the words, those emotions first have to originate in his mind. Which means from the from the mind, the emotions travel, form the right words and those words come out of the mouth. If the emotions have to come out as words, space and air is required.

Only when all these actions happen smoothly, does the person able to speak and make the impression and pass on the info. The question is who is the inspiration behind the mind, to able to make out the emotions and words? What if there are no words coming out to indicate the right message? What if the mind does not act properly at that instance? Where is our real involvement in all this? When we realize how dependent [or just an instrument] we are and how little we can control, the ego disappears. Only then, can we live with everything but not get attached to anything.

The senses [3 gunas] work according to the swabhava. Lord who is bright knowledge [gyana ananda Swaroopa – Happiness filled body of knowledge], controls the gunas in the body/action. When we realize this truth, our ego of feeling mine and I disappear. We realize, that in the immense universe, we are just a sand particle and our actions are insignificant – attachment disappears.

ಪ್ರಕೃತೇರ್ಗುಣ ಸಮ್ಮೂಢಾ ಸಜ್ಜಂತೇ  ಗುಣಕರ್ಮಸು ।

ತಾನಕೃತ್ಸ್ನವಿದೋ ಮಂದಾನ್ ಕೃತ್ಸ್ನವಿನ್ನ ವಿಚಾಲಯೇತ್ ೨೯॥

praktergua sammūḍhā sajjate  guakarmasu |

tānaktsnavido madān ktsnavinna vicālayet ||29||

Gist of the sloka:

One who is immersed in the senses which are the arms of prakruthi; will have forgotten themselves and will be attaching themselves to it. They who have not learnt the truth, should not be unsettled by people who know the truth.

Explanation:

People who are mystified by the 3 gunas immerse themselves in it, without realizing the truth about them. They would be under great influence of those gunas forgetting that they are subordinate to Lord. Lord Krishna calls them “prakruthi guna samudaha”. They tend to believe the qualities of the Lord are their own qualities [action, knowledge, desire]. They believe everything happens because of them and their wishes. They will never have the eligibility to understand the truth or Lord. One should not unsettle them. If they have the eligibility to understand the truth, they themselves will come out of their shell and seek the truth.

Otherwise one is incapable to giving them that eligibility. If they have the quality, one cannot steal it from them. They who have the eligibility, will seek the right kind of people who can guide them. One should meet only such people to either give or receive the right knowledge.

ಮಯಿ ಸರ್ವಾಣಿ ಕರ್ಮಾಣಿ ಸಂನ್ಯಸ್ಯಾಧ್ಯಾತ್ಮಚೇತಸಾ ।

ನಿರಾಶೀರ್ನಿರ್ಮಮೋ ಭೂತ್ವಾ ಯುಧ್ಯಸ್ವ ವಿಗತಜ್ವರಃ೩೦॥

mayi sarvāṇi karmāṇi sanyasyādhyātmacetasā |

nirāśīrnirmamo bhūtvā yudhyasva vigatajvara||30||

Gist of the sloka:

Offering all actions to me, keeping your mind in me, removing ego and attachment, leaving the lethargy, fight.

Explanation:

Lord Krishna instructs Arjuna, dedicate to me all the actions that you do. The word “Sanyasa” has been used here. Sanyasa means – dedicating all the work that has happened through me by Lord grace to Lord as a form of worship. This frame of mind is known as Sanyasa. Naham kartha, Hari kartha; Hari kartha hi kevalam.

One should pray as follows: whatever comes out of my mouth should be as your prayer. Let it be a verse in your praise. Whatever happens in my mind should be your remembrances? Let every action be worship. Lord Krishna is asking Arjuna [and us too] to think along these lines.

The cause of this war was decided about 13 years ago. It was during the time Yudhishthira was performing Rajasuya sacrifice and when Shishupala lost his life. When he asked Lord Vyasa, He had told Yudhishthira that after 13 years there would be a great war. In a way, the war was already predicted, and Lord had willed it. Arjuna was a mere instrument. It is one of the reasons why Lord tells Arjuna to keep his mind on Him, dedicating the actions to Him, proceed for the war.

Our life is a battle. We must do our duty with sincerity. Whatever is the divine plan, it will happen. We cannot change or prevent it from happening. Whatever is the action/duty that the Lord has planned for us, he will ensure we will do it accordingly. We can only dedicate those actions to him, renounce any results/rewards, accept those as blessings and do our duty sincerely. Once a person has this in his mind and action, the responsibility shifts to Lord. We would have no other greater worship than this to offer to Him.

This is the real message that Lord Krishna give it us through Gita.

ಯೇ ಮೇ ಮತಮಿದಂ ನಿತ್ಯಮನುತಿಷ್ಠಂತಿ ಮಾನವಾಃ

ಶ್ರದ್ಧಾವಂತೋನಸೂಯಂತೋ  ಮುಚ್ಯಂತೇ ತೇಪಿ ಕರ್ಮಭಿಃ೩೧॥

ye me matamida nityamanutiṣṭhati mānavāḥ|

śraddhāvatonasūyato  mucyate tepi karmabhi||31||

Gist of the sloka:

One who believes in this teaching of mine and lives according to it, will escape from the bounds of karma.

Explanation:

Everything which is happening through me, is because of Lord. Everything I am doing, is like a worship to Him. What is beneficial to me, is known to the Lord better than me. I will therefore do not exercise any desire for a reward but will accept whatever comes my way, as His blessings. This is how I will live.

This should be how we believe and act in our life, always.

Mankind who believes in the above in every moment of their life, are known as human beings, gynani and one who has sense of humanity. One who has no Tamasic or Rajasic and does his karmas with sense of renunciation, will have elevated knowledge. They will slowly rise and become eligible for mukthi.

If you see, our own actions create barriers for us. If in case, we are doing the karmas with right knowledge, the same karmas become steppingstones and eliminates the attachment of karmas to us.

ಯೇ ತ್ವೇತದಭ್ಯಸೂಯಂತೋ ನಾನುತಿಷ್ಠಂತಿ  ಮೇ ಮತಮ್।

ಸರ್ವಜ್ಞಾನವಿಮೂಢಾಂಸ್ತಾನ್ ವಿದ್ಧಿನಷ್ಟಾನಚೇತಸಃ೩೨॥

ye tvetadabhyasūyato nānutiṣṭhati  me matam|

sarvajñānavimūḍhāṃstān viddhinaṣṭānacetasa||32||

Gist of the sloka:

Believe that: One out of envy, does not follow my teachings and not practice it, are to be considered as fools, doomed to destruction.

Explanation:

Who out of jealousy and envy believe: he himself is responsible for his actions and its results; my actions are for my safe keeping, I will obtain the results on my own and enjoy it, I am responsible for my existence, no God or demi-Gods are responsible – will never have the door to truth ever opened for him. He will be considered among the world’s greatest fool. He is ignorant of his own lack of knowledge.

Such people will not have any right or eligibility towards understanding truth. They walk towards their own destruction. They go from darkness to even more darkness finally reaching complete destruction.

When listening to the above frightening scenario laid out by Lord Krishna, there appears to be question on everyone’s mind. Why does the populace not understand and follow the right path?

Lord Krishna answers it in the next verse.

ಸದೃಶಂ ಚೇಷ್ಟತೇ ಸ್ವಸ್ಯಾಃ ಪ್ರಕೃತೇರ್ಜ್ಞಾನವಾನಪಿ

ಪ್ರಕೃತಿಂ ಯಾಂತಿ ಭೂತಾನಿ ನಿಗ್ರಹಃ ಕಿಂ ಕರಿಷ್ಯತಿ ೩೩॥

sadṛśa ceṣṭate svasyāḥ prakterjñānavānapi |

prakti yāṃti bhūtāni nigraha ki kariyati ||33||

Gist of the sloka:

Irrespective of how knowledgeable a person is, he always acts according to his swabhava. Every living being is puppets of their swabhava. It is impossible to suppress ones swabhava.

Explanation:

Irrespective of how much knowledge one obtains, not everyone on the earth will follow a single path. The reason being, due to influences like personal philosophy, how we have been brought up through childhood to now and our swabhava [attached to soul at all times].

If we analyze, we realize that over multiple births and environments, our memories have been fashioned by the 3 gunas and many events that has happened. Those experiences remain with us at all times even when we don’t realize it. Even in the present life, the way we have been brought up, the genetic factors, environmental/societal factors, spouse, children all provide their influences on us. These are called prabhava. This along with the original swabhava keeps influencing us at all time. The action of the memories, swabhava and prabhava define our lives. Prabhava is like a layer of dust covering the swabhava. We need to remove the dust to know what is below that the – real swabhava of the soul.

Like the seed cannot be changed to bring out different fruits from its original, same too is the scenario here. One cannot change one’s swabhava.

A question arises now, if swabhava cannot be changed and all actions, thoughts are dominated by swabhava, why then even attempt to change?

Unless one persists in knowing the right knowledge, practice and performs the actions – one cannot escape from the prabhava influence. Reducing the influence of the prabhava, one will get to know swabhava and act accordingly. Refer 3.35.

ಇಂದ್ರಿಯಸ್ಯೇಂದ್ರಿಯಸ್ಯಾರ್ಥೇ ರಾಗದ್ವೇಷೌ ವ್ಯವಸ್ಥಿತೌ।

ತಯೋರ್ನ ವಶಮಾಗಚ್ಛೇತ್ ತೌ  ಹ್ಯಸ್ಯ ಪರಿಪಂಥಿನೌ೩೪॥

idriyasyedriyasyārthe rāgadveau vyavasthitau|

tayorna vaśamāgacchet tau  hyasya paripathinau||34||

Gist of the sloka:

Each of the indriyas [senses] are filled with desire and resentment. One should not fall for them, for they are the seekers greatest enemy.

Explanation:

In each of the senses, there are two aspects which work against a seeker. Desire and resentment. Due to which we have raga [attachment, want] and dwesha [desire, Kama]. Due to want, one obtains raga and due to raga, one gets desire. If obtained, then it results in greater possessiveness. If not anger. If someone else gets it, then jealousy and anger. If it is not as per our vision, then anger.

Among all the above, the root cause is desire. The more we desire more anger we obtain or more grief. If we control the desire – the root cause, we control both anger and grief.

We should therefore never get trapped into desire. We are then safe from ragadwesha, kama-krodha [anger]. We should never have possessiveness. For all these, drives the person to greater darkness and destruction.

Belief it has to be possessed by myself only and not by any other is a character of each sense. This is due to the ego behind our way of life. Lord Krishna warns repeatedly, never surrender to these [senses, desires, anger] and become its servant. They are big barriers for a seeker. They are the real enemies.

Not falling for these enemies, we should have control over our senses. We should stand detached from them and view each action of them critically. We should analyze what is the motivation for them, what is in their self-interest. Will these actions lead us astray? Will it help me elevate or push me down in my path?

It is like using a sieve while cleaning the flour. We should use our intellect along with our mind; while clearing our desires. By this analysis, one should clear the impurities and take the most appropriate action which elevates oneself. Sri Lakshmi herself would then be seated in such actions.

Lord Krishna is instructing Arjuna that he should fight without these impurities and fight for the sake of dharma. He is indirectly cautioning him [about future] that he should not jump with joy when Duryodhana dies or fall into grief when Abhimanyu dies.

ಶ್ರೇಯಾನ್ ಸ್ವಧರ್ಮೋ ವಿಗುಣಃ ಪರಧರ್ಮಾತ್ ಸ್ವನುಷ್ಠಿತಾತ್ ।

ಸ್ವಧರ್ಮೇ ನಿಧನಂ ಶ್ರೇಯಃ ಪರಧರ್ಮೋ ಭಯಾವಹಃ ೩೫॥

śreyān svadharmo vigua paradharmāt svanuṣṭhitāt |

svadharme nidhana śreya paradharmo bhayāvaha ||35||

Gist of the sloka:

Instead of following what is not according to one’s swabhava, imperfection in doing one’s swabhava is superior. Destruction due to following one’s duty is preferable to following another’s, as it’s dangerous.

Explanation:

As previously described every soul has its own swabhava which is unchangeable. One should perform actions which are in alignment with their swabhava. This is their natural karma. One should perform what is in alignment with their swabhava and not otherwise or another’s.

We should build our lives accordingly. If not in alignment with our swabhava, we are trying to overcome something which cannot be changed and it results in conflicts, dissatisfaction, lack of perfection etc., in every action.

It is similar in case of children too. We as parents should closely analyze from their childhood what is the swabhava of the child and appropriately put them in the right environment, courses and profession.

Lord Krishna is very clearly implying that swabhava is with us over multiple births and deaths. Karmas along the lines of swabhava would only enhance our happiness leading to mukthi. If we do karmas not according our swabhava, we are only increasing the path that we need to traverse to reach mukthi and is dangerous.

Here fighting for dharma is Arjuna’s natural swabhava [Both as Indira and as Kuru prince]. Instead if he wants to withdraw from the battle and go into the forest for doing tapas, then it is not only dangerous but against his swabhava. No progress will happen because of it. Lord is instructing him to perform his actions as per karma yoga.

ಅರ್ಜುನ ಉವಾಚ ।

ಅಥ ಕೇನ ಪ್ರಯುಕ್ತೋಯಂ ಪಾಪಂ ಚರತಿ ಪೂರುಷಃ ।

ಅನಿಚ್ಛನ್ನಪಿ ವಾರ್ಷ್ಣೇಯ ಬಲಾದಿವ ನಿಯೋಜಿತಃ೩೬॥

arjuna uvāca |

atha kena prayuktoya pāpa carati pūrua |

anicchannapi vārṣṇeya balādiva niyojita||36||

Gist of the sloka:

Arjuna spoke: O Varshneya, man commits sins even when he is not inclined to do so – as though a force is making him do it. Who then is the inspiration behind it?

Explanation:

After hearing from Lord Krishna, Arjuna puts forth the question which each one of us have: Even when we are aware [right and wrong] of the wrong actions, we still go ahead and do it. Why is it so? What is the force which makes us do those actions against our will? What is that force?

Arjuna uses the word ‘Purusha’ here. Even the one who has obtained the ‘aporoksha gynana’ or knowledge of ultimate truth, will commit mistakes. There are many such individuals who have been mentioned in Mahabharatha. Examples are Bheeshmacharya, Dronacharya, who were the greatest gynani of the times, but due to obligations sided with Duryodhana knowing fully well he was evil in action, thought and behavior. Arjuna’s question is about which force makes even a gynani commit such actions.

Arjuna calls Lord Krishna as Varshneya. It means among others one who provides whatever one desires. Arjuna’s implication being you being the provider of all desires, let us know what is that force which makes us do its wish.

ಭಗವಾನುವಾಚ

ಕಾಮ ಏಷ ಕ್ರೋಧ ಏಷ ರಜೋಗುಣಸಮುದ್ಭವಃ।

ಮಹಾಶನೋ ಮಹಾಪಾಪ್ಮಾ ವಿದ್ಧ್ಯೇನಮಿಹ ವೈರಿಣಮ್೩೭॥

bhagavānuvāca

kāma ea krodha ea rajoguasamudbhava|

mahāśano mahāpāpmā viddhyenamiha vairiam||37||

Gist of the sloka:

Bhagawan spoke: The one which provokes sin is Kama [all desires whose controller is daemon Kalanemi]. The version of this is anger through Rajasic birth. This is like an uncontrolled hunger with no end. The greatest of Hell is its birthplace. For a seeker, this is obstruction in his path.

Explanation:

For everything the root cause is desire. Some desire is always persisting in our minds. We can, by committing wrong actions can the desire be fulfilled? is the temptation which will bother us. The force which makes us do it is the daemon Kalanemi. If he resides in us, then he will ensure we do his bidding.

There are primarily two factors which causes sinful actions. Desire and anger. One who has intense desire will have intense anger and with that anger what all the actions he undertakes is impossible to say. Maybe after realizing what he has done, he might regret. The root cause for anger is desire. Without desire, one cannot get anger. Behind anger is the intense desire.

The Rajasic qualities in the man is like hunger without end. A good example of this would like a unemployed person who is looking for a job for a long time. His aspiration would be to get some job so that his basic needs are fulfilled. Through grace of Lord, he obtains a position with sufficient salary to fulfill his needs. Over a period of time, he sees others getting more money and his desires now increase making him greedy for higher salaries and positions.

Even after he gets it, his desires only increase making him even more greedy. His original intention is long forgotten. He will never have satisfaction with his salary or position or the needs he has already fulfilled, his basic needs long back.

If we continue to tolerate and encourage desires, the wrong actions become more and more intense and leads us to Hell. It will make us do unwanted and wrong actions [thoughts and beliefs]; including killing of a knowledgeable saint. This is the dark warning about desire that the scriptures give us. We just have to open the newspaper today to see examples of it.

Therefore, one should be always alert for such events. Controlling the desire, one should be satisfied with what Lord gives, as blessings. One should prevent such thoughts from forming itself and if already existing should drive them out. Live for righteousness and for that makes you a better persona and elevates you.

ಧೂಮೇನಾವ್ರಿಯತೇ ವಹ್ನಿರ್ಯಥಾದರ್ಶೋ ಮಲೇನ ಚ ।

ಯಥೋಲ್ಬೇನಾವೃತೋ ಗರ್ಭಸ್ತಥಾ ತೇನೇದಮಾವೃತಮ್ ೩೮॥

dhūmenāvriyate vahniryathādarśo malena ca |

yatholbenāvto garbhastathā tenedamāvtam ||38||

Gist of the sloka:

Like smoke hides the fire [Lord], like dust covering the mirror [manas – mind], like the womb covering the fetus inside, Kama covers everything in people.

Explanation:

To give an example of how desire and anger, covers our eye, Lord Krishna gives a example here. The fire which brightens everything including itself, but when smoke covers it, it becomes difficult to see nor does it brighten the surroundings. The fire is like Lord, who brightens the universe. Whereas the Rajasic guna is like smoke. This comes in between us and the Lord preventing us from viewing the Lord. This action of the smoke is giving difficulties to the seeker who has Satvic qualities.

For people who have Rajasic qualities, the example given by Lord Krishna is about mirror. The mirror due to the Rajasic dust covering it cannot even view themselves clearly. They need to remove the action of the gunas with the bright light of knowledge - to get to truth.

For Tamasic people the example is about the fetus inside the womb. They are already in the dark. Even if the fetus opens the eye, it cannot see anything. It is already undergoing torture due to action of various water, mucus etc., They are unable to get out nor do anything about their situation. It is a trapped situation.

Without the deep desire to know about the Lord, these rajasic gunas continue to act and prevent us from realizing the truth.

ಆವೃತಂ ಜ್ಞಾನಮೇತೇನ ಜ್ಞಾನಿನೋ ನಿತ್ಯವೈರಿಣಾ ।

ಕಾಮರೂಪೇಣ ಕೌಂತೇಯ ದುಷ್ಪೂರೇಣಾನಲೇನ ಚ ೩೯॥

āvtaānametena jñānino nityavairiṇā |

kāmarūpea kauteya dupūreṇānalena ca ||39||

Gist of the sloka:

O Kauntaeya, even after consuming like the fire, the Kama [desire] is the greatest enemy for a seeker. It does not let go of knowledgeable people, blinding their minds.

Explanation:

This rajasic gunas, prevent use of knowledge of a gynani; while for a non-aware person it will prevent any knowledge reaching him like a barrier. Desire and anger are the greatest enemies of the man. The fire of the desire is never satisfied. Give into one and it creates 10 more desires.

The name Kauntaeya invokes is a reminder to Arjuna, that he being the son of Kunti, should remember how his mother has undergone various difficulties all her life but is still is determined to follow the right path. Removing the desire, temptation, enforce the discipline over mind.

ಇಂದ್ರಿಯಾಣಿ  ಮನೋ ಬುದ್ಧಿರಸ್ಯಾಧಿಷ್ಠಾನಮುಚ್ಯತೇ 

ಏತೈರ್ವಿಮೋಹಯತ್ಯೇಷ ಜ್ಞಾನಮಾವೃತ್ಯ ದೇಹಿನಮ್೪೦॥

idriyāṇi  mano buddhirasyādhiṣṭhānamucyate  |

etairvimohayatyea jñānamāvtya dehinam||40||

Gist of the sloka:

The senses, mind and intellect are the residences of desires. Remembering this, the seeker should be alert.

Explanation:

The primary place where the desires come in is through the senses [eye, ear, nose, tongue and skin]; with their various aspirations. If we do not stop it at the sense level, it reaches the mind. It then occupies the mind with its desire. If we do not stop it at the mind, it then occupies the intellect. Once it reaches the intellect, it’s impossible to drive it out or to control it.

It is like inviting our enemy not only into our home but also providing him a prime seat inside the home for ever. The desire becomes a principle of our life. Once it reaches the intellect, the desires now control us, not the other way around. Our lives revolve around it, including our thoughts, actions, aspirations etc.,

For example, it all starts with a simple info what we have heard about. We usually don’t dismiss it at that moment itself, as not worth the effort. The info now germinates a need to learn more about the object. That develops a desire to know/view it. Once we view, we desire to touch it. With the touch, the desire to own it, develops.

If we obtain it, it may meet our expectations [possessiveness develops], if not anger. If it goes to someone with more power, we obtain grief. All along from the time we heard about it, the desire is only developing more intensely. We can also see how, from the sense organ [ear] it reaches the mind and occupies it. From the mind, it enters the intellect forcing actions [right or wrong] to make the desire come to fruit. In fact, to a stage where we feel, without obtaining the desire object to satisfy the senses, our life is incomplete or waste. Whatever is the cost we need to obtain it etc.,

This prevents the seeker from obtaining the right knowledge or sometimes using the knowledge he already has. Desire occupies all the 3 places and becomes a barrier and is the greatest enemy. The word ‘Dehinam’ is used here meaning- The gross body is the vehicle which can help us to obtain the right knowledge and thereby elevate us. Whereas desire can take us down.

Therefore, it’s necessary to find out who is our enemy and who is our friend. How does one occupy our mind and intellect and if it’s useful or a barrier? Lord Krishna now describes the method to overcome the enemies next.

ತಸ್ಮಾತ್ ತ್ವಮಿಂದ್ರಿಯಾಣ್ಯಾದೌ ನಿಯಮ್ಯ ಭರತರ್ಷಭ  ।

ಪಾಪ್ಮಾನಂ ಪ್ರಜಹಿ ಹ್ಯೇನಂ ಜ್ಞಾನವಿಜ್ಞಾನನಾಶನಮ್ ೪೧॥

tasmāt tvamidriyāṇyādau niyamya bharatarabha  |

pāpmāna prajahi hyenaānavijñānanāśanam ||41||

Gist of the sloka:

O the warrior from Bharatha dynasty, controlling the senses, being aware of the right and wrong, thinking clearly and deeply and not allowing it to be colored, drive away this sinner.

Explanation:

We should destroy this sinner at the very beginning. We should control this sinner at the entry level in the senses. This sinner destroys our knowledge [gynana - hearing] and science [vignana – imbibing and thinking capacity]. This great sinner should be driven far away. Lord Krishna tells us how and who can do so in the next verse.

ಇಂದ್ರಿಯಾಣಿ ಪರಾಣ್ಯಾಹುರಿಂದ್ರಿಯೇಭ್ಯಃ ಪರಂ ಮನಃ  ।

ಮನಸಸ್ತು ಪರಾ ಬುದ್ಧಿರ್ಯೋ ಬುದ್ಧೇಃ ಪರತಸ್ತು ಸಃ  ೪೨॥

idriyāṇi parāṇyāhuridriyebhya para mana  |

manasastu parā buddhiryo buddhe paratastu sa ||42||

Gist of the sloka:

Senses [indriyas] are great residences [than gross body]. The demi-Gods [indriyas abhimana devatas] who control the senses are greater than the senses themselves. For all the senses mind [manasu – Lord Shiva is supreme over mind among all the demi-Gods present there] is in a greater position. Intellect [controlled by Saraswathi/Bharathi] is greater than mind. One beyond intellect is Paramatma [Lord Krishna who is beyond all].

Explanation:

While there are series of devils to takes us on wrong path, there are demi-Gods too who are with us protecting and to take us in the right path. For each of the senses there is a demi-God responsible for it. The superior indriyas demi-God is Indira. For the mind, its Shiva-Parvathi. For intellect, its Saraswathi and over everyone is Lord Krishna.

We should surrender to the demi-Gods who supervise the senses to intellect and to the supreme Lord. With their help, we shall be able to obtain the right knowledge and reach the Lord. For example, some of the demi-Gods are: eye - Sun God, for ear –moon, for mouth - fire/agni, tongue is varuna [water], nose – Ashwini devatas, hands – Indra [he is also the overall Lord over senses], foot – Indira’s son Upendra, Yama – excretory organs, Daksha – procreation organ. Like this, these demi-Gods can help us to escape from the clutches of the enemy. We should therefore pray to these demi-Gods and the Lord Krishna and with their help escape from the evils. We can then reach Lord Krishna. This helps in controlling senses and to divert energy towards the Lord.

ಏವಂ ಬುದ್ಧೇಃ ಪರಂ ಬುದ್ಧ್ವಾ ಸಂಸ್ತಭ್ಯಾತ್ಮಾನಮಾತ್ಮನಾ।

ಜಹಿ ಶತ್ರುಂ ಮಹಾಬಾಹೋ ಕಾಮರೂಪಂ ದುರಾಸದಮ್ ೪೩॥

eva buddhe para buddhvā sastabhyātmānamātmanā|

jahi śatru mahābāho kāmarūpa durāsadam ||43||

Gist of the sloka:

O Mahavira, by realizing the right knowledge [which is difficult for commoner], realizing the true reality of the Lord, thinking rightly and without vacillating, drive away the evil which commoner cannot overcome.

Explanation:

By realizing the true knowledge which is not easily understood by the senses-mindintellect, control the mind which is like a runaway horse. Give the control to the Lord and benefitting from the protection given by the demi-Gods, win over the daemon Kalanemi slowly and surely. Finally reaching the abode of Lord Krishna in mukthi.

If we remember the above whenever there is a wrong desire which arises in us, we can prevent the entry of the daemon Kalanemi inside us.

Not all desires are wrong. For example, having a desire to know the right knowledge and thereby meet the Lord is not bad. In fact, it’s a desire everyone should have. We should therefore surrender our mind to the Lord, remove wrong desires with help of Lord and demi-Gods, then realize mukthi.

The fight against Kalanemi is not immediate, for we need to win the battle slowly, step by step with the help of the good forces like Lord and demi-Gods. All along the way, they help us to overcome these evil forces.

ಇತಿ ತೃತೀಯೋಧ್ಯಾಯಃ

ಮೂರನೇ ಅಧ್ಯಾಯ  ಮುಗಿಯಿತು

iti ttīyodhyāya

mūrane adhyāya  mugiyitu
About YouSigma

Find charities worthy of your support and donate

Copyright and Disclaimer Iridium rentals
underline
oogle Tracking Code -->