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Chapter 18: Birth of Rama, Bharata, Lakshmana and Shatrughna

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Birth of Rama, Bharata, Lakshmana and Shatrughna



After the completion of Vedic ritual all the kings and Sage Rishyasringa took leave of Dasharatha and went away to their countries. After some time Rama, Lakshmana, Bharata, and Shatrughna are born. Their virtues in childhood and rituals connected thereto are depicted [described] here. Dasharatha then contemplates [consider with continued attention] the marriages of the princes, since marrying sons after completion of education is customary. At that juncture Sage Vishvamitra arrives at the court of Dasharatha seeking help from the king. Dasharatha receives him adoring [regarding with loving admiration and devotion] in high esteem.

Birth of Rama, Bharata, Lakshmana and Shatrughna

Chapter [Sarga] 18 in Detail

nirhvritte tu kratau tasmin hayamedhe mahaatmanah |

prati grihya amaraa bhaagaan pratijagmuh yathaa aagatam || 1-18-1

On the completion of the horse ritual of high-souled Dasharatha, the Gods having received their portion of sacrificial oblation [the act of offering the eucharistic elements to God] returned to their abodes as they have come. [1-18-1]

samaapta diiksaa niyamah patnii gana samanvitah |

pravivesha puriim raajaa sa bhritya bala vaahanah || 1-18-2

The king completing his consecratory [sacred] vows held for horse ritual, entered Ayodhya city along with the company of his queens, servants, guards and vehicles. [1-18-2]

yathaa arham puujitaah tena raajnaa cha prithiviishvaraah |

muditaah prayayuh deshaan pranamya muni pu.ngavam || 1-18-3

The other kings who arrived for the ritual are delighted when befittingly honored by the king Dasharatha, and they too returned to their countries, after suitably adoring the eminent [famous] sage Vashishta. [1-18-3]

shriimataam gacchataam tesaam svagrihaani puraat tatah |

balaani raajnaam shubhraani prahristaani chakaashire || 1-18-4

The entourages [attendants or associates] of those kings who set forth homeward from that city are highly gladdened and shone forth in fine fettle [state or condition of health, fitness, wholeness, spirit, or form]. [1-18-4]

gatesu prithiviishesu raajaa dasharathah punah |

pravivesha puriim shriimaan puraskritya dvijottamaan || 1-18-5

On the departure of visiting kings, then that fortunate king Dasharatha entered the city Ayodhya, keeping eminent [famous] Brahman priests ahead of him in the procession. [1-18-5]

shaantayaa prayayau saardham risyashringah supuujitah |

anugamyamaano raajnaa cha saanuyaatrena dhiimataa || 1-18-6

Well adored by king Dasharatha sage Rishyasringa also traveled along with his wife Shanta, followed by his father-in-law King Romapada, and along with other co-travelers, namely the entourage [attendants or associates] of Romapaada. [1-18-6]

evam visrijya taan sarvaan raajaa sampurna maanasah |

uvaasa sukhitah tatra putra utpattim vichi.ntayan || 1-18-7

On dispersing all of them king Dasharatha gratifyingly dwelled there in Ayodhya, with a satiated [as a need or desire] heart dwelling upon the birth of his sons. [1-18-7]

tato yajne samaapte tu ritunaam sat samatyayuh |

tatah ca dvaadashe maase chaitre naavamike tithau || 1-18-8

nakxatre aditi daivatye sva uccha sa.nstheshu pa.nchasu |

graheshu karhkate lagne vaakpataa i.ndunaa saha || 1-18-9

prodyamaane jagannaatham sarva loka namaskritam |

kausalyaa ajanayat raamam sarva laksana sa.myutam || 1-18-10

visnoh ardham mahaabhaagam putram aixvaaku na.ndanam |

lohitaaksham mahaabaahum rakta ostam du.ndubhi svanam || 1-18-11

On completion of the ritual, six seasons have passed by and then in the twelfth month, on the ninth day of Chaitra month [April-May,] when the presiding deity of ruling star of the day is Aditi, where the ruling star of day is punarvasu, the asterism is in the ascendant, and when five of the nine planets viz., Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and Venus are at their highest position, when Jupiter with Moon is ascendant in Cancer, and when day is advancing, then Queen Kausalya gave birth to a son with all the divine attributes like lotus-red eyes, lengthy arms, roseate [resembling a rose especially in color] lips, voice like drumbeat, and who took birth to delight the Ikshvaku dynasty, who is adored by all the worlds, and who is the greatly blessed epitome [a typical or ideal example] of Vishnu, namely Rama. [1-18-8, 9, 10, 11]

kausalyaa shushubhe tena putrena amita tejasaa |

yathaa varena devaanaam aditih vajra paaninaa || 1-18-12

Kausalya shone forth with such a son whose resplendence [brilliance] is unlimited, as with lady Aditi who once stood out with her son Indra, the best one among gods. [1-18-12]

bharato naama kaikeyyaam jajne satya paraakramah |

saaksaat visnoh caturtha bhaagah sarvaih samudito gunaih || 1-18-13

Queen Kaikeyi gave birth to Bharata, one embodied with all merits, and whose truthfulness itself is his valor and who is fourth component of manifest Vishnu, namely Rama. [1-18-13]

atha laxmana shatrughnau sumitraa ajanayat sutau |

viirau sarva astra kushalau visnoh ardha samanvitau | 1-18-14

Queen Sumitra then gave birth to two sons who are the embodied [incarnation] epitomes [typical or ideal example] of Vishnu, namely Lakshmana, and Shatrughna, who are valiant ones and experts in all kinds of weaponry. [1-18-14]

pushye jaatah tu bharato mina lagne prasanna dhih |

saarpe jaatau tu saumitri kulire abhyudite ravau || 1-18-15

The fair-minded Bharata is born under Pisces where pusyami is the star of day and the sons of Sumitra, namely Lakshmana and Shatrughna are born under Cancer, where aasresa is the star of the day and when sun is rising. [1-18-15]

raajnah putraa mahaatmaanah catvaaro jajnire prithak |

gunavantah anuruupaah ca rucyaa prostha padopamaah || 1-18-16

Thus there are four great-souled sons of Dasharatha, born on separate instances, who are virtuous, charming, and by brilliance they are in similitude [likeness] with two stars of each of the asterisms called puurva bhadra and uttara bhadra. [1-18-16]

jaguh kalam cha ga.ndharvaa nanrituh cha apsaro ganaah |

deva du.ndubhayo neduh puspa vristih cha khaat patat || 1-18-17

utsavah cha mahaan aasiit ayodhyaayaam janaakulah |

The celestial singers sang melodiously, paradisiacal [resembling paradise] dancing parties’ danced, divine drums drummed and heavens rained flowers, with all this there is a great festivity in Ayodhya with thronging [crowding] people. [1-18-17, 18a]

rathyaah cha jana sambaadhaa nata nartaka sa.nkulaah || 1-18-18

gaayanaih cha viraavinyo vaadanaih cha tatha aparaih |

virejur vipulaah tatra sarva ratna samanvitaah || 1-18-19

Hilarity [boisterous merriment or laughter] filled the streets with people stampeding them and with the flurry of actors, dancers, singers and instrumentalists, as well by other onlookers, and there on the streets widely strewn [scattered] are all kinds of gems appreciating the artists. [1-18-18b, 19]

pradeyaamshcha dadau raajaa suta maagadha vandinaam |

braahmanebhyo dadau vittam go dhanaani sahasrashah || 1-18-20

The king gave worthy gifts to eulogizers [one who speaks or write in high praise of], bard [poet] singers, and panegyrists [one who speaks or write in high praise of], and to Brahmans he gave funds and wealth in the form of thousands of cows. [1-18-20]

atiitya ekaadasha aaham tu naama karma tathaa akarot |

jyestham raamam mahaatmaanam bharatam kaikayii sutam || 1-18-21

saumitrim laksmanam iti shatrughnam aparam tathaa |

vasisthah parama priito naamaani kurute tadaa || 1-18-22

Elapsed are eleven days and the naming ceremony is performed, then Vashishta, the chief priest, named the high-souled elder one as Rama, Kaikeyi's son as Bharata, and one son of Sumitra as Lakshmana and the other as Shatrughna [1-18-21, 22]

braahmanaan bhojayaamaasa pauraan jaanapadaan api |

udadad braahmanaanaam cha ratnaugham amalam bahu || 1-18-23

tesaam janma kriya aadini sarva karmaani akaarayat |

The king feasted Brahmans, urbanites and villagers and he gifted many valuable gems to Brahmans in an unlimited way, and all the rituals of birth and ceremonies sequel [subsequent development] to it like naming ceremony, first-food-feeding ceremony, first-hair-removal ceremony, and sacred thread ceremony are performed in respect of the princes. [1-18-23, 24a]

tesaam ketuh iva jyestho raamo ratikarah pituh |1-18-24

babhuuva bhuuyo bhuutaanaam svayam bhuuh iva sammatah |

Among those princes the eldest one Rama is like a flagstaff and a delight of his father Dasharatha, and he became acceptable to all beings like the self-created Brahma. [1-18-24b, 25a]

sarve veda vidah shuuraah sarve lokahite rataah || 1-18-25

sarve jnaanopasampannaah sarve samuditaa gunaih |

All the princes are scholars in Veda-s, valiant ones, all are interested in the welfare of the world, all are intellectuals and all of them possess an air of probity [adherence to the highest principles and ideals]. [1-18-25b, 26a]

tesaam api mahaatejaa raamah satya paraakramah || 1-18-26

istah sarvasya lokasya shashaa.nka iva nirmalah |

Among them the great resplendent [brilliant] Rama, whose valor itself is his truthfulness, is the dear one to the entire world like the tranquil [calm] moon. [1-18-26b, 27a]

gaja skandhe ashwa priste cha ratha charyaasu sammatah || 1-18-27

dhanurhvede cha niratah pituh shushrisane ratah |

Rama is admittedly a champion of riding elephants and horses, also in tactical charioting, and he rejoices in the art of archery, and absorbed in the obedient service of his father. [1-18-27b, 28a]

baalyaat prabhriti susnigdho laksmano laksmi vardhanah || 1-18-28

raamasya lokaraamasya bhraatuh jyesthasya nityashah |

Right from childhood Lakshmana, the enhancer of prosperity, is always amiable towards his world-charming elder brother Rama. [1-18-28b, 29a]

sarva priya karah tasya raamasya api shariiratah || 1-18-29

laksmano laksmi sa.mpanno bahih praana iva aparah |

Lakshmana who is endowed with the wealth of dedication dedicated himself to Rama with bodily service, and while performing all agreeable deeds in respect of Rama, he behaved like Rama's alter ego [counterpart]. [1-18-29b, 30a]

na ca tena vinaa nidraam labhate purusottamah || 1-18-30

mristam annam upaaniitam ashnaati na hi tam vinaa |

That best one among the men Rama does not get his sleep without Lakshmana and he would not eat food brought for him, however delicious it may be, without Lakshmana. [1-18-30b, 31a]

yadaa hi hayam aaruudho mrigayaam yaati raaghavah || 1-18-31

atha enam pristhatah abhyeti sa dhanuh paripaalayan |

Whenever Raghava mounts a horse and goes on a hunting game Lakshmana rushes after him wielding his bow as a squire [a shield or armor]. [1-18-31b, 32a]

bharatasya api shatrughno laksmana avarajo hi sah || 1-18-32

praanaih priyataro nityam tasya ca aasiit tathaa priyah |

Lakshmana's younger brother Shatrughna is a dear one to Bharata, like that Bharata too held Shatrughna dearer than his own lives. [1-18-32b, 33a]

sa caturbhih mahaabhaagaih putraih dasharathah priyaih || 1-18-33

babhuuva parama priito devaih iva pitaamahah |

King Dasharatha is highly gladdened with four of his highly fortunate sons like the Forefather Brahma with Gods in heaven. [1-18-33]

te yadaa jnaana sa.mpannaah sarvaih samuditaa gunaih || 1-18-34

hriimantah kiirtimantah ca sarvajnaa diirgha darshinah |

tesaam evam prabhaavaanaam sarvesaam diipta tejasaam || 1-18-35

pitaa dasharatho hristo brahmaa lokaadhipo yathaa |

When all of the four sons are thus prospering with prudence [shrewdness in the management of affairs], gifted with all the merits, self-conscious to do wrong deeds, well-known for their gentility [gentle behavior], knower of pros and cons and even the conscientious [upright] princes, then their father Dasharatha is contented in respect of all of them who are such radiantly brilliant and potential princes, like Brahma. [1-18-34b, 35, 36a]

te cha api manuja vyaaghraa vaidika adhyayane rataah || 1-18-36

pitri shushrusana rataa dhanur vede cha nistitaah |

Even those tigerly-men, namely the princes, are engrossed in the studies of Veda-s, delighted to render service to their father and they are also the experts in art of archery. [1-18-36b, 37a]

atha raajaa dasharathah tesaam daara kriyaam prati || 1-18-37

ci.ntayaamaasa dharmaatmaa saha upaadhyaayah sa baandhavah |

Then the noble souled Dasharatha contemplated along with his priestly teachers and relatives about the matrimonial alliances of his sons. [1-18-37b, 38a]

tasya cintayamaanasya ma.ntri madhye mahaatmanah || 1-18-38

abhyaagacchat mahaatejaa vishvaamitro mahaamunih |

While the great souled Dasharatha is discussing the marriages of princes among his ministers, the highly powerful sage Vishvamitra arrived. [1-18-38b, 39a]

sa raajno darshana aakaa.nksii dvaara adhyaksaan uvaaca ha || 1-18-39

shiighram aakhyaata maam praaptam kaushikam gaadhinah sutam |

Desirous to have an audience [a formal hearing or interview] with king Vishvamitra said to the doorkeeper, "Let the king be informed quickly that I, the son of Gadhi from the dynasty of Kushi, have come" [1-18-39b, 40a]

tat shrutvaa vacanam tasya raajno veshma pradudruvuh || 1-18-40

sa.mbhraanta manasah sarve tena vaakyena coditaah |

On listening those words all the doorkeepers are dumbfounded and ushered [introduced] by those words they quickly rushed to the place of Dasharatha. [1-18-40b, 41a]

te gatvaa raaja bhavanam vishvaamitram risim tadaa || 1-18-41

praaptam aavedayaamaasuh nripaayaih iksvaakave tadaa |

Then on their arriving at the king's palace the doorkeepers have announced to the king of Ikshvaku-s, namely Dasharatha, about the arrival of sage Vishvamitra. [1-18-41b, 42a]

tesaam tat vacanam shrutvaa sapurodhaah samaahitah || 1-18-42

prati ujjagaama sa.mhristo brahmaanam iva vaasavah |

On hearing that message from doorkeepers Dasharatha is highly pleased and he has gone towards Vishvamitra in a self-possessed manner along with royal priests, as Indra would ceremoniously go towards Brahma. [1-18-42b, 43a]

tam dristvaa jvalitam diiptyaa tapasam sa.mshita vratam || 1-18-43

prahrista vadano raajaa tatah arghyam upahaarayat |

Then on seeing the resplendent [brilliant] sage Vishvamitra, whose radiance is by his own ascesis and who has severe self-discipline, the king offered water with a gladsome aspect, as first customary hospitality in receiving unexpected guest. [1-18-43b, 44a]

sa raajnah pratigrihya arghyam shaastra dristena karmanaa || 1-18-44

kushalam ca avyayam ca eva parya pricchat naraadhipam |

On receiving water from the king scripturally and customarily Vishvamitra enquired after the well-being and welfare of king Dasharatha. [1-18-44b, 45a]

pure koshe janapade baandhavesu suhritsu ca || 1-18-45

kushalam kaushiko raajnah paryapricchat sudhaarmikah |

That highly righteous sage Vishvamitra asked the king after the well-being of city, exchequer [treasury], rural areas, friends and relatives. [1-18-45b, 46a]

api te sannataah sarve saama.nta ripavo jitaah || 1-18-46

daivam ca maanusam ca eva karma te saadhu anustitam |

Sage Vishvamitra asked Dasharatha, "Are all of the provincial [a country or region brought under the control of the ruler] kings acquiescent [acceptable] to you, and all your enemies conquered? Are you properly performing the devotional and social works?" [1-18-46b, 47a]

vasistham ca samaagamya kushalam munipu.ngavah || 1-18-47

risiim ca taan yathaa nyaayam mahaabhaaga uvaaca ha |

And on meeting the eminent sage Vashishta and with them the other exalted [glorious] sages according to custom Vishvamitra asked after their well-being. [1-18-47b, 48a]

te sarve hrista manasah tasya raajno niveshanam || 1-18-48

vivishuh puujitaah tena niseduh ca yathaa arhatah |

Then adoringly invited by the king Dasharatha all of them gladly entered the palace and they took their seats according to protocol. [1-18-48b, 49a]

atha hrista manaa raajaa vishvaamitram mahaamunim || 1-18-49

uvaaca parama udaaro hristah tam abhipuujayan |

Then the very generous king Dasharatha is gladdened at heart at the arrival of Vishvamitra, and he spoke this way feeling happy to adore that sage. [1-18-49b, 50a]

yathaa amritasya sa.mpraaptih yathaa varsam anuudake || 1-18-50

yathaa sadrisha daaresu putra janma aprajasya vai |

pranastasya yathaa laabho yathaa harso mahodaye || 1-18-51

tathaa eva aagamanam manye svaagatam te mahaamune |

"I deem your arrival is in the vein [a bed of useful mineral matter] of mortals attaining ambrosia [something extremely pleasing to taste or smell], rainfall in a droughty land, a barren father begetting a son through his deserving wife, a regain of long lost treasures, and the gladness at a great happening, oh, great saint, welcome to you." [1-18-50b, 51, 52a]

kam ca te paramam kaamam karomi kimu harsitah || 1-18-52

paatra bhuuto.asi me brahman distyaa praapto.asi maanada |

adya me saphalam janma jiivitam ca su jiivitam || 1-18-53

yasmaad viprendram adraaksham suprabhaataa nishaa mama |

"Oh, Brahman, as I am the one who is delighted for your arrival, and as you are the most eligible recipient from me, what is that choicest object of yours to be fulfilled by me, and in which way. Oh, endower of respect, for me your arrival is fortunate whereby my birth is fructified and my life flourished today, and wherefore I could see a great Brahman like you visiting my home, therefore the sun appears to have dawned [to begin to appear or develop] in my night. [1-18-52b, 53, 54a]

puurvam raajarsi shabdena tapasaa dyotita prabhah || 1-18-54

brahmarsitvam anupraaptah puujyoasi bahudhaa mayaa |

"Originally your glory was explicit by your title kingly-sage, and subsequently you attained the Absolute-sainthood by your asceticism, and you are venerable to me, in many ways." [1-18-54b, 55a]

tat adbhutam abhuut vipra pavitram paramam mama || 1-18-55

shubha ksetra gatah ca aham tava sa.ndarshanaat prabho |

"Oh, Brahman, thereby your arrival at my place is surprising and ideally sacred to me, and by your very appearance I have become one who has gone on a quiet pilgrimage. [1-18-55b, 56a]

bruuhi yat praarthitam tubhyam kaaryam aagamanam prati || 1-18-56

icchaam anugrihiito aham tvadartham parivriddhaye |

"You may tell me, entreating [negotiating] which work your arrival chanced here and I feel that I am indeed blessed and wish to make it happen to achieve results. [1-18-56b, 57a]

kaaryasya na vimarsham ca ga.ntum arhasi suvrata || 1-18-57

kartaa ca aham ashesena daivatam hi bhavaan mama |

"It is unapt [inappropriate] of you to deliberate [think] about the feasibility of the work, oh, sage with blest vows, while I am the fulfiller of it without any reminder, since you are god to me, indeed. [1-18-57b, 58a]

mama ca ayam anupraapto mahaan abhyudayo dvija |

tava aagamana jah kritsno dharmah ca anuttamo dvija || 1-18-58

"Oh, Brahman, this is the great prosperity that bechanced [befall] on me, and this is propriety in its entirety that bechanced on me, as a result of your arrival. [1-18-58b, c]

iti hridaya sukham nishamya vaakyam

shruti sukham aatmavataa viniitam uktam |

prathita guna yashaa gunaih vishistah

parama risih paramam jagaama harsam || 1-18-59

On hearing the words of high-minded Dasharatha, said that way in all his humbleness, and those that are pleasant to ears as well to heart, he who is a renowned for his personal attributes and a reputed one by his exceptional qualities, that sublime sage Vishvamitra obtained high rejoice. [1-18-59]

iti vaalmiiki raamaayane aadikaavye baala kaande astaadashah sargah

Thus, this is the 18th chapter in Bala Kanda of Valmiki Ramayana, the First Epic poem of India.

Sriman Moola Rama Vijayate


Desiraju Hanumanta Rao. (1998). Balakanda - Book Of Youthful Majesties.

Merriam-Webster. (2007). At (2007). At

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