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Vishnusahasranama As in Sri Mahabharatha Anushasanaparva (142 Slokas) - with Kannada Discourse on Nama by Sri Bannange Govindacharya
ವಿಷ್ಣುಸಹಸ್ರನಾಮ ಪೀಟಿಕೆ (13 ಸ್ಲೋಕ)
ಶ್ರುತ್ವಾ ಧರ್ಮಾನಶೇಷೇಣ ಪಾವನಾನಿ ಚ ಸರ್ವಶಃ |
śrī vaiśaṃpāyana uvāca
Vaishampayana was the traditional narrator of the Mahabharata, one of the two major Sanskrit epics of India. He was an ancient Indian sage who was the original teacher of the Krishna Yajur-Veda. The Ashvalayana Grihya Sutra mentions him as Mahabharatacharya. He is also mentioned in the Taittiriya Aranayaka and the Ashtadhyayi of Pāṇini. He was a pupil of Vyasa, from whom he learned the Jaya, the original 8,800 verses of the Mahabharata. He later expanded the Jaya to 24,000 verses under the name Bharata, which he recited to King Janamejaya at his sarpa satra (snake sacrifice). The Harivamsa is also said to have been recited by him.
stuvaMtaH kaM kamarcaMtaH prApnuyurmAnavAH SuBam || 2 ||
ಕೋ ಧರ್ಮಃ ಸರ್ವಧರ್ಮಾಣಾಂ ಭವತಃ ಪರಮೋ ಮತಃ |
kO dharmaH sarvadharmANAM BavataH paramO mataH |
kiM japanmucyatE jaMturjanmasaMsArabaMdhanAt || 3 ||
Who does all religions extol as “The GOD”? who is the only one who protects his subjects? Who do we praise and sing to attain spiritual and materialist benefits?Which do you think is the greatest religion and virtue among all religions and virtues? By meditating on what, human being is realized from the circle of death and life and attains salvation?
ಜಗತ್ಪ್ರಭುಂ ದೇವದೇವಮನಂತಂ ಪುರುಷೋತ್ತಮಮ್ |
stuvannAmasahasrENa puruShaH satatOtthitaH || 4 ||
ತಮೇವ ಚಾರ್ಚಯನ್ನಿತ್ಯಂ ಭಕ್ತ್ಯಾ ಪುರುಷಮವ್ಯಯಮ್ |
tamEva cArcayannityaM BaktyA puruShamavyayam |
dhyAyan stuvannamasyaMSca yajamAnastamEva ca || 5 ||
ಅನಾದಿ ನಿಧನಂ ವಿಷ್ಣುಂ ಸರ್ವಲೋಕಮಹೇಶ್ವರಮ್ |
anAdi nidhanaM viShNuM sarvalOkamahESvaram |
lOkAdhyakShaM stuvannityaM sarvaduHKAtigO BavEt || 6 ||
ಬ್ರಹ್ಮಣ್ಯಂ ಸರ್ವಧರ್ಮಜ್ಞಂ ಲೋಕಾನಾಂ ಕೀರ್ತಿವರ್ಧನಮ್ |
brahmaNyaM sarvadharmaj~jaM lOkAnAM kIrtivardhanam |
lOkanAthaM mahadBUtaM sarvaBUtaBavOdhBavam || 7 ||
Without stumbling and with care the achiever should remember the owner of the Universe and who is the elder among all deities. One should always with devotion and with respect remember in mind and pray the one who is the protector and who does not diminish or neither who can be destroyed, omnipresent, the elderly, who knows all virtues, religion, and varna and the one external supreme.
ಏಷ ಮೇ ಸರ್ವಧರ್ಮಾಣಾಂ ಧರ್ಮೋಧಿಕತಮೋ ಮತಃ
ESha mE sarvadharmANAM dharmOdhikatamO mataH
yadBaktyA puMDarIkAkShaM stavairarcEnnaraH sadA || 8 ||
Remembering GOD’s characteristics is the most important of all faith. Vishnusahasranama is the most famous among all hymns. Reciting the Hymn with sincerity and devotion, and with belief is important of all faith. Based on our belief and characteristics the results and benefits are also reflect the same. If we do not develop belief, it is useless. Worshipping without belief and meaning is useless. Reciting the hymns with respect and belief is the most important of all faith.
ಪರಮಂ ಯೋ ಮಹತ್ತೇಜಃ ಪರಮಂ ಯೋ ಮಹತ್ತಪಃ |
paramaM yO mahattEjaH paramaM yO mahattapaH |
paramaM yO mahadbrahma paramaM yaH parAyaNam || 9 ||
GOD is the one who give energy to the brightest source of light. He is the ultimate for any thinking, and knowledge. Here GOD is described as ‘Parama Maha Brahma’. Here Brahma means living beings, ‘Para Brahma’ means, souls that have attained salvation. ‘Parama Brahma’ means Sree Tatva, Goddess Lakshmi who is always in the state of Salvation. ‘Parama Maha Brahma’ means Narayana. GOD Narayana is supreme authority (‘Parama’) to all superiors (‘Parayanaru’). Here superiors (‘Parayanaru’) means deities who control elements or aspects of reality that constitute human experience.
ಪವಿತ್ರಾಣಾಂ ಪವಿತ್ರಂ ಯೋ ಮಂಗಲಾನಾಂ ಚ ಮಂಗಲಮ್ |
pavitrANAM pavitraM yO maMgalAnAM ca maMgalam |
daivataM dEvatAnAM ca BUtAnAM yOvyayaH pitA || 10 ||
Pavitra means who that make one holy. If we want to be holy, we need to submit ourselves to the “The GOD”. He is sacred, mature, and supreme deity among all deities. He is the “One” Father to all souls.
ಯತಃ ಸರ್ವಾಣಿ ಭೂತಾನಿ ಭವಂತ್ಯಾದಿಯುಗಾಗಮೇ |
yataH sarvANi BUtAni BavaMtyAdiyugAgamE |
yasmiMSca pralayaM yAMti punarEva yugakShayE || 11 ||
During creation of the universe all matter and souls (consisting of atoms and sub atoms) are created from “The GOD”. During deluge, the subatomic states reach “The GOD”. Every creation is done systematically and with calculation, noting is accidental.
ತಸ್ಯ ಲೋಕಪ್ರಧಾನಸ್ಯ ಜಗನ್ನಾಥಸ್ಯ ಭೂಪತೇ |
tasya lOkapradhAnasya jagannAthasya BUpatE |
viShNOrnAmasahasraM mE SruNu pApaBayApaham || 12 ||
God will expunge our fear of sin. He will coach those who are sinners. O Emperor, please remember the 1,000 names and characteristics mentioned in Vishnusahasranama.
ಯಾನಿ ನಾಮಾನಿ ಗೌಣಾನಿ ವಿಖ್ಯಾತಾನಿ ಮಹಾತ್ಮನಃ |
yAni nAmAni gauNAni viKyAtAni mahAtmanaH |
RuShiBiH parigItAni tAni vakShyAmi BUtayE || 13 ||
Sages, seers, and great souls have constantly preached and meditated on the 1,000 names and characteristics mentioned in Vishnusahasranama. Saying so, Sri Bheesmacharya in the presence of Sree Krishna, started advising Vishnushasranama to Dharmaraja.One can observe masculine-feminine-neutral genders in Vishnusahasranama. For the one who is complete, “The GOD”, does not have the defects found in any gender. In only GOD it is possible to see the integration of all these genders.
ವಕ್ರತುಂಡ ಮಹಾಕಾಯ ಕೋಟಿ ಸೂರ್ಯ ಸಮಪ್ರಭ
vakratuṃḍa mahākāya koṭisūrya samaprabha
ಶುಕ್ಲಾಂಬರದರಂ ವಿಷ್ಣುಂ ಶಶಿವರ್ಣಂ ಚತುರ್ಭುಜಂ
śuklāṃbaradharaṃ viṣṇuṃ śaśivarṇaṃ caturbhujaṃ
prasannavadanaṃ dhyāyet sarva vighnopaśāṃtaye |
Let us first mediate on Lord Ganapathi, the remover of obstacles. Let us start with the name “Vishvam”, who is embodied in “Viswambara” form.
ವಿಷ್ಣುಸಹಸ್ರನಾಮ (117 ಸ್ಲೋಕ)
<<Click each nama to hear the discourse from Sri Bannanje Govindacharya in Kannada>>
The one responsible for Creation, Protection, and Destruction of the Universe, and one who makes us experience Joy and Sorrow is known as Bhutabavanaha
akṣhara can be split into Aksha + Ra. Here Aksha means our senses, Ra means happy. Hence, akṣhara means one who is happily present in our senses. Here ‘A’ means not or not present. Hence “The GOD” is not or not present! Meaning, “The GOD” is not materialistic to be seen and he is free of any defects.
The entire meaning of puruṣottamaḥ is described in detail in Bhagwadgita chapter 15. Here Lord Krishna says: There are two kinds of purusha’s in this Universe. Kṣāra purusha, i.e., from Lord Brahma to all Souls and Akṣara, i.e., beyond Lord Brahma, the Prakruti Goddess Lakshmi. Beyond these two is puruṣottamaḥ, he is called “The GOD”. He is the one who cannot be destroyed and nurtures the entire Universe. He is beyond Kṣāra and greater/elder than Akṣara. Hence across the Universe and in Vedas he is known as puruṣottamaḥ. puruṣottamaḥ is being used in 3-4 different ways. Notable person, famous person, absolute person, and one who is present in this body (pura) and external to our body. The soul that is entrapped in this perishable body bound by 15 barriers is known as ‘Kshara Purusha’. The 15 barriers that bound the perishable body is as follows:
1) Barrier of ‘Character’: this is also of two kinds. The one that is in your DNA (one that cannot be parted with) and the external environment/forces that influences your character (one that can be parted with). Once you look beyond forces such as your family influence, heredity, environment you grew up with, genetic influence.etc. the true characteristics of your Soul can be realized.
2-6) Barrier of the five physical elements: Earth and Water (Annamaya Kosha), Fire-Air-Space (Pranamaya Kosha).
7) Barrier of Senses: The lower five sense organs that allow human beings to perceive the world around them - Ear, Skin, Eyes, Tongue, and Nose known as Pancha jnanendriya; Feet, Hands, Rectum, Genitals, and Mouth knows as Pancha karmendriya the five organs of action.
8) Barrier of conscience: the bad thoughts arising in us.
9) Barrier of food
10) Barrier of strength and vigor
11-12-13) Barrier of meditation, concentration, and action
14) Barrier of ignorance: I have done this, and I have done that
15) Barrier of Name and Fame
The soul the 16th is trapped within these 15 Barriers. Goddess Lakshmi (prakruti) who has dressed up the 16th Soul with these 15 barriers is the 17th. Beyond the Barriers, Soul, Goddess Lakshmi is “The GOD” and he is known as puruṣottamaḥ. He is the one who will release us from the bondage of these 15 barriers and help us to attain salvation.
viśvaṃ and sarvaḥ have the same meaning. God is sarvaḥ meaning he is omnipotent, omniscient, complete with all qualities. sarvaḥ means he knows everything, he is present everywhere, he is present at all times, he is the reason for every cause, and perfect.
śarvaḥ means he is present in Shiva and will destroy the Universe. He will punish abusive and sinners.
Sha means happiness, Shiva means epitome of knowledge and auspicious.
Sthāṇu: usually gives the meaning that one that does not move. Since God is omniscient, he knows everything without moving and hence is Sthāṇu. Since he is Omnipresent, he can reach anywhere without moving and hence he is Sthāṇu. He is subatomic and pervades everything and hence he is Sthāṇu:. He is bigger than the sky and smaller than the atom, he looks like he is moving and stationary (it moves, and it moves not!).
Bhūtādhi means he is bigger than all the accomplished souls. One who is responsible for all living and non-living, movable and unmovable objects is known as Bhūtādhi. Not only this, he who sustains all the accomplished souls in him and nurtures them, and finally he is cause for destruction is known as Bhūtādhi. One who gives salvation to all accomplished souls is also know as Bhūtādhi.
Nidhi+avyayaḥ= Nidhiravyayaḥ. Nidhi means hidden treasure. The knowledge about God is itself the biggest and non-diminishing hidden treasure. The one who is present in the center of our heart is the hidden treasure. He is Avi, meaning protector. To safeguard and protect us, he who is present within and around us is the ultimate treasure and is Nidhiravyayaḥ.
Sambhavaḥ means one who descends to earth when his devotees call and need him. One who is responsible for the creation and who incarnates to protect his creation. One who gives upliftment and salvation is also known as Sambhavaḥ.
He is present in everyone and controls the emotions. Bhavaṁ+Nayati=Bhāvana, meaning one who gives is happiness if we do good deeds. Bhavaṁ+Apanayati= Bhāvana, meaning when we head in wrong ways, he gives us sorrows to correct us. Hence the one who is responsible for happiness and sorrows is Bhāvanaḥ.
Bhartā mans one who carries everything. The one who bears the universe and is the root cause.
One who is superior and pure knowledge and bliss is Prabhavaḥ. One who is above all and uplifts others is Prabhavaḥ. Prabhu God is Omnipotent and hence he is the lord to everyone.
Eshvaru means the divinities and forces that are embodied and governs us and the universe. E.g., Shani is the presiding deity for earth; Mercury is the presiding deity for water; Ganapathi is the presiding deity for sky; Sun is the presiding deity for eyes; Moon is the presiding deity for Ears; Varuna is the presiding deity for tongue; Agni is the presiding deity for voice; Indra is the presiding deity for hand; Yagna is the presiding deity for leg; Anirudda, Brahaspathi, Varuna, Mitra, Indra, Kama, Garuda, Sesha, Rudra, Vayu are all presiding deity for mind. Saraswathi is the presiding deity for diligence. Hence each deities have a portfolio. The deities (esharu) mentioned above regulate the 15 barriers. All these deities work in accordance with God’s wishes and who is prabhurīśvaraḥ.
dhātuhu means one is superior to Lord Brahma. He is tridhāta, meaning, one who bears all the three - the three Vedas (Rig, Yajur, and Sama), the three worlds (Bhu - earth, Bhuvar – where siddhas and other celestial beings move and is the Earth's atmospheric sphere which also contains space which has its neighboring planets in the solar system along with stars and comets., Svar - The interval between the sun and Dhruva, extending fourteen hundred thousand leagues, is inhabited by the Devas, including Devis with their king Indra and it's references make it equivalent to the Swarga (heaven)) and beyond (Mahar - Above Dhruva, at the distance of ten million leagues, lies the sphere of saints, or Mahar-loka, the inhabitants of which dwell in it throughout a Kalpa, or day of Brahmā., Jana - At twice that distance is situated Janaloka, where the Sanandana (four Kumaras) and other pure-minded children of Brahmā reside., Tapa- At four times the distance, between the two last, lies the Tapa-loka (the sphere of penance), inhabited by the immortal beings and deities called Vaibhrájas, who are highly knowledgeable, pure, and enlightened, whereby they can easily travel to the uppermost realm, Satya-loka, are unconsumable by fire of destruction during the dissolution of the universe., and Satya- It is highest plane of consciousness or the highest of the heavenly realms. It is also called Brahma Loka where Brahma and his wife, Saraswati, resides. It is six times the distance (or twelve Crores, a hundred and twenty millions of leagues) and is referred to as the sphere of truth, where all the knowledge is available and the inhabitants never die, become old, become ill, have pain and anxiety.).
1) Ēkāyanaḥ - the main nature known as tree
2-3) Viphala – The two eyes, ‘Pravruthi’ and ‘Nivruthi’
4-6) Trimoolah – The three roots, Satva, Rajas, and Tamas
7-10) Chaturasah – The four flavors, Justice, Materialistic Benefit, Good Desires, and Salvation
11-15) Panchashikha – The five barriers, Earth, Water, Fire, Air, and Sky or Sound, Touch, Beauty, Flavor, and Smell.
16-17) Shadatma – Six characteristics, infatuation, Sorrow, Hunger, Thirst, Ignorance, illness. Six stages of growth, Conception, Birth, Growth, Changes, Old Age, and Death.
22-28) Saptatwak – Outer Skin (epidermis), Inner Skin (Dermis & Hypodermis), Muscle, Blood, Oil Glands, Marrow, Skelton.
29-36) Astavitapa – Eight kind of deities, Gandarvas, Giants, Monsters, flesh-eating demons, Animals, Humans, All other all living entities, moving and not moving.
37-45) Navakshah – Nine orifice, eyes (2), ears (2), nostrils (2), mouth, navel, and anus
46-55) Dashachadah – Ten leaves, Five jnanendriya, nose, eyes, tongue, skin, and ears, and five Karmendriya, mouth, feet, hands, anus and genitals.
The architect that created such arrangement is known as Viśvakarmā.
Loka + Hita + Aksha – means for the betterment of the society and to fulfil the good desires of his devotees the one whose eyes are like lotus. If one wants to know the meaning of this name, we need to understand some situations when God pretended to be angry. Let us see the situation during the epic battle of Mahabharata when Bhimsha and Arjuna fought against each other. Arjuna without his desire was fighting against Bhimsha who had brought him up with love and affection. Seeing that Arjuna not fighting with desire and full potential, Krisna pretends to be angry. Before the start of the epic battle of Mahabharatha, Krishna had vowed that he will not bear arms. Despite his vow, Krishna grabs hold of a broken wheel of a chariot and charges toward Bhimsha to kill him. During this situation, the eyes of Krishna appeared like crimson red Lotus. Seeing this Bhimsha folds both his hands in reverence and says: “O God, I had made a vow before you that I will make you bear arms during the battle. You had vowed that you will not bear arms and use Chakra. However, to fulfil my vow, you bore arms in the form of broken wheel of a chariot (Chakra). I am blessed, you ignored your vow but never ignored the vow of your devotee. Veda’s mention you are savior of your devotees.” In this situation one can observe the divine grace that God bestows on his devotees. We can also observe similar situation during the Lord’s Narashima avatara. After mutilating Hiranyakashapu and wearing Hiranyakashapu’s intestine as a garland, he pretended as though his anger did not subside and his eyes appeared like crimson red Lotus. The deities pretended that they were scared seeing that ‘God’ in that anger state and did not come forward to console the ‘God’– even Goddess Lakshmi pretended she was scared and could not console the ‘God’. To uplift Praladha, they requested 5-year-old Praladha to console the Lord. Praladha goes forward and seats himself on the ‘Lord’s’ lap and consoles the ‘Lord’. The Lord then asks Praladha what he wants, and Praladha says ‘you are the one who is the Lord of my senses, what shall I ask from you? However, since you asked me, please forgive my father Hiranyakashapu’s sin and grant him Moksha. The lord smiles and says, you do not ask me this boon ask me something else, since the day you were born as Hiranyakashapu’s son your father already attained Mokasha. The situations we observed above gives us an understanding how ‘God’ bearing eyes colored like crimson red Lotus will destroy evil to upheld good. The one with eyes colored like crimson red Lotus is lohitākṣaḥ.
The use of abbreviations originated from Sanskrit. In Sanskrit, abbreviations are very often used. pratardanaḥ can be split as pra + tardana or pra + tarda + nayati. pra + tardana, here ‘prakrusta’ means excellent and ‘pra’ is the abbreviation for prakrusta. tardana means the one who destroys. Hence pratardana means one who destroys the forces that harm excellence. pra + tarda + nayati, here ‘pra’ is the abbreviation for Prahalada. ‘tarda’ means harm. ‘nayati’ means that destroys. Hence pratardanaḥ means, the one who destroyed Hiranyakashpu who harmed Prahalada, and protected the society from evil.
‘Bhuma’ means complete. ‘Prabhuti’ means the state of accomplished souls i.e., Bliss. Prabhūta means one who is complete and bliss.
Tri + Kakut + Dhama = trikakubdhāma; here ‘Tri’ means three, ‘Kakt’ means pinnacle or worlds, ‘Dhama’ one who resides. Trikakubdhāma means one who resides at the three pinnacles or in three worlds. Earth, Sky, and Heavens are the three pinnacles or worlds. There are three positions in these three pinnacles. On earth it is ‘Swetha Dweepa’, in sky it is ‘Anantasana’, in heavens it is ‘Vaikunta’. Three radiant forms – Brahma, Vishnu, and Maheshwara. Three letters in Omkara - Aa, Uu and Ma. For these three letters, the three words – “Bhur Bhuvaḥ Swaḥ”. From these three words, three metre (as in music, refers to the regularly recurring patterns and accents such as bars and beats) – “Tat-savitur Vareñyaṃ, Bhargo Devasya Dheemah, Dhiyo Yonaḥ Prachodayāt”. The three orders presented in three metre – ‘Purusha Suktah’ (the first order 1-5, the second order 6-10, and the third order 11-16). From the orders the most famous three Veda’s – ‘Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, and Sama Veda’. Hence everything mentioned is a pinnacle. Hence Trikakubdhāma means: one who resides in three worlds; one resides in the three permanent positions in these three worlds; one who resides in the three radiant forms; the one who is established in the three letters ‘Om’; the one who is praised in three metre; the one who is praised in three orders in Purusha Suktha; the one who is praised in three Vedas .etc., In summary Trikakubdhāma means one who is present in three worlds in three forms, in all letters, in all scriptures and orders.
Once God leaves this body, the body becomes inauspicious. Hence, one who is capable of making one auspicious is ‘Pavitra’. However, this mortal Body is not Auspicious. Our Body is like Lotus born in muddy water.The mud or impurities present in this body are many, one achieves auspiciousness once one leaves this mortal body. Permanent auspiciousness is when one reach salvation. The one who grants Salvation is know and pavitraṃ.
maṅgalaṃ (maṃgalaṃ) param
maṅgalaṃ means upliftment or Kalyana (Upa in Upanishad also conveys the same meaning). Usually, marriage is called Kalyana. The women wear Mangalasutra after wedding. However, all weddings do not lead to upliftment! By which wedding, man and woman achieve spiritual upliftment is called Kalyana. The wedding that leads us to spiritual downfall is not upliftment but inauspicious. The death that leads us to salvation is Kalyana, suicide is inauspicious and leads to spiritual downfall. One who dedicates his good Karma (SatKarma) to God is auspicious (like Pandavas did). One who does Karma to benefit oneself is inauspicious (DushKarma). Just performing SatKarma is not upliftment, but one who does not perform DushKarma after doing SatKarma is upliftment and that is salvation. God is auspicious and leads us always towards upliftment by making us perform SatKarma – hence he is maṅgalaṃ (maṃgalaṃ) param.
īśā means external forces that control us. īśānaḥ means the ruler of these external forces.
prāṇa + daḥ = prāṇadaḥ. Here daḥ conveys opposite meanings i.e., one who gives, and one who snatches. prāṇadaḥ means one who has given us life, and one who has given us sense organs, and essential skills and knowledge; in the end one who snatches the materialist body and graces one who is eligible with salvation is called prāṇadaḥ.
prā (ಪ್ರ) + ā (ಆ) + ṇa (ಣ) = prāṇa. prā (ಪ್ರ) means auspicious, one who is does not have sorrows, and special. ā (ಆ) means one who is perfect. ṇa (ಣ) means the personification of happiness. Hence God is prā + ā + ṇa = prāṇa.
jyeṣṭhaḥ means elderly. One who is the creator and controller of all souls is known as jyeṣṭhaḥ.
One does not become superior because of age. Some are superior in knowledge, some are superior in terms of materialistc wealth, and some are superior in terms of strength. Hence where God is present and graces us there is superiority and hence he is śreṣṭhaḥ.
Chaturmukha (lord Brahma) is know as prajāpatiḥ. The one who is embodied in Chaturmukha (lord Brahma) and custodian of all souls, God, is prajāpatiḥ.
hiraṇya means Gold or Silver. As seen before, the Universe is described as an egg in the form of a Lotus. It is envisioned that the Universe got created from God’s navel in the form of lotus. As poets envision, this Universe when observed from distant far looks like a thousand Sun’s in the form a Golden egg. The one who has embodied this wonderful universe in this Navel is known as hiraṇyagarbha (ಹಿರಣ್ಯಗರ್ಭ).
Here the word bhū (ಭೂ) means nature and earth. The one who carries the nature and one part that is earth in his lap is called bhūgarbha (ಭೂಗರ್ಭ). Earth’s gravitational force is also called sankarshana (attraction). Sankarshana is also the appropriate name for Adishesha. God who is present in Sankarshana (gravitational force) keeps the earth in-check and protects the earth. Thr creator and protector of the earth (God) is bhūgarbha (ಭೂಗರ್ಭ).
mā means Mother Lakshmi. Hence mādhava means husband of Mother Lakshmi. Mā also means knowledge. God is the ruler of knowledge; hence he is mādhava. Lord Krishna was born in Madhu lineage and hence Lord Krishna is also known as mādhava. In Vedas the word mātṛ (ಮಾತೃ) is also used as ಮಾತು (voice / sound) or ವಾಜ್ಮಯ (collection). The Seven greatest works Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda, Atharvaveda, Ramayana, Mahabharatha, and Puranas are also know an mātṛ (ಮಾತೃ). Hence the one whom is praised or extolled in mātṛ (ಮಾತೃ) is mādhava (ಮಾಧವ).
The word madhu conveys various meanings such as sex, desire, or utlimate bliss. First one sees an object, next he or she wants to posses it, and next he or she wants to expirence it and when he or she is not able to possedd or expirence it this leads to anger. These forces present within us are the root cause of all troubles. To get rid of these forces (madhu) within us, one should seek protection for God. He is the only one that can defeat or demolish these (madhu) and hence he is known as madhusūdanaḥ (ಮಧುಸೂದನಃ), the destroyer of madhu. Madhu also means happiness and If you futher analyse the meaning of madhusūdanaḥ, it means destroyer of happiness. Do not be afraid that, what is this, madhusūdanaḥ, means destroyer of happiness? The One who destroys the happiness of those who follows the path of unrighteousness and arrogance is madhusūdanaḥ. The one who uplift good and righteous people is madhusūdanaḥ.
īśvaraḥ means the controller of all forces that control the universe.
vikramī (ವಿಕ್ರಮೀ) To understand the meaning of this Nama, one should recollect the Vamana incarnation of the God. As you may be already aware, God when incarnated as Vamana asked the greatest donor, Bali Cakravarthi to donate three steps of land. Without listening to his Guru Shukracharya, Bali Chakrvarti promised and agreed to Lord Vamana to donate three steps of land. Lord Vaman with his first step occupies the entire earth and with the second step the heavens. Now Bali smiles at the Lord and offers his head for the Lord Vamana to use as his third step. Pleased with Bali, the Lord makes Bali the lord of the underworld. Bali hence became the lord of the underworld. Hence the Lord is called trivikrama (ತ್ರಿವಿಕ್ರಮ್). If we analyze the meaning of this story, then only one will understand the hidden meaning. All beings who undergo circle of life and death and household responsibiltes, are Bali. to get blessed from God, one has to strengthen (ಬಲಿಷ್ಠ) their heart, mind, and spritual sense. To practice spiritual upliftment there are three steps. The first step is to understand, respect, and worship God as the small idol placed in our place of worship. As we keep worshipping the idol one gets to the realization that he is spread in the entire universe (omnipresent). Once we realize he is spread in the universe, one realizes that he is also in me and one has to bow our head. Only then we will realize God, and he will bless and protect us. the one who gives us strength (ಬಲಿಷ್ಠ) and uplift us is known as vikramī (ವಿಕ್ರಮೀ).
dhanvī means archer, also means one who holds the bow in the hand. Here bow symbolizes that one which destroys evil. To establish Dharma, God holds bow in his hand. God does not need any special weapons. Since God destroys evil, he is known as dhanvī (ಧನ್ವೀ).
medhā means memory and recollecting, what we hear, what we see. and what we read forever. The heart wishes, the intellect grasps, and the mind retains. One who can recollect forever what they hear, see, and read are called medhāvī (ಮೇಧಾವೀ). God who has gifted us heart, intellect, and mind (medhā ) is the owner and is medhāvī (ಮೇಧಾವೀ).
vikramaḥ means one who does not have an order or system, meaning God is not bound to any order or system. What God follow become an order or system for us.
As mentioned before God is vikramaḥ, the Universe he has created is orderly and follow prescribed rules. Every object in the Universe follows prescribed mathematical rules. For example, one can mathematically calculate when there is going to be an eclipse in the past, present, and future. Every object in the universe rotates and revolves with prescribed speed. These mathematical rules are so precise. The one who created the mathematics and rules is kramaḥ (ಕ್ರಮಃ).
God’s step is infinite and all steps that an object in the universe takes is embed in God’s infinite step. Anuttama means superior among superior. None is superior to the God.
The one which is beyond our imagination is know as durādharṣaḥ. It is impossible to complete understand the God, even Goddess Lakshmi is for eons is still trying to understand him. His actions, and resolution cannot be changed. Hence, he is durādharṣaḥ.
In preceding names (name) we have seen that God is not bound to any order or system, no objects can overrule his order, he is superior, beyond imagination .etc. Now a question may arise within us? Why does God discriminate? He makes one rich, the other poor, he gives happiness to one, and gives sorrow to one .etc., why is this? The answer to this question is itself the meaning of kṛtajñaḥ (ಕೃತಜ್ಞಃ). kṛtajñaḥ (ಕೃತಜ್ಞಃ) means without forgetting the one who gives it back. The one who gives back the reaction (good and bad) for every action (good and bad) we have performed in the is called kṛtajñaḥ (ಕೃತಜ್ಞಃ). Many times our action and reaction span this lifetime or from previous birth, one may have created good deeds in one birth, and he/she may reap good benefits after 100’s of birth’s – nothing is lost. Many time the good action we perform in one birth, we reap good benefits in the same birth.
Knowledge, strength, valor, and action is his characterstics. The one who created the entire universe and multi-verse by his desire is know as kṛti (ಕೃತಿ).
Ātmavān (ಆತ್ಮವಾನ್) The materialistic meaning of Ātma (ಆತ್ಮ) is our body. God is not made up of elements that eventually returns to there original state when we die, like earth. fire, water, and air that our materiastic body is made of. He is omipreent, omniscient, and omnipotent, he can materialize in any form. Knowledge is his characterstics. The father of all souls is know as Ātmavān (ಆತ್ಮವಾನ್).
Suraru means Deities, God is the ruler of Deities and hence he is sureśaḥ (ಸುರೇಶಃ).
Basically Sharanu originally means refuge. However by usage the original meaning was lost and is used as excessive. Based on original meaning, God is our refuge and we cannot be rufuge to God and he is the rufuge for all beings.
Śarma means ultimate bliss. The ultimate knowledge and bliss God is Śarma.
From a surface, since the Universe (multi verse) is created from God’s sperm it conveys the meaning God is viśvaretāḥ. Retan means ultimate bliss. viśvaretāḥ means the ultimate bliss for all living beings in the Universe (Multi Verse). Retassu (ರೆತಸ್ಸು) also means substantial. Hence the one who is substantial in the entire universe (multi verse) is viśvaretāḥ (ವಿಶ್ವರೇತಾಃ).
Devotees who follow the path of righteousness and who seek true knowledge are know as prajā (ಪ್ರಜಾ). bhavaḥ (ಭವಃ) means one who bestows untimate bliss. Hence, the one who bestows ultimate bliss to the devotees who follow the path of righteousness and who seek true knowledge is know as prajābhavaḥ (ಪ್ರಜಾಭವಃ).
From a peripheral ahaḥ (ಅಹಃ) means “me”. In every work we speak we use the word ‘I” or “me”. Let us understand the meaning of “I” or “Me”. Does “I” or “Me” mean my hand, my leg, my head, my heart ...my body? NO! my breath? NO! my Soul? NO! Because who controls these? GOD! hence he is ahaḥ (ಅಹಃ). We have developed the arrogance that, any work done, we say “I did this, I did that”, but we do not realize and have forgotten that it is God who pervades in us and does the work, we are just instruments in the Gods hand.
ahaḥ (ಅಹಃ) also means light, meaning he pervades the Sun and gives light and heat to us. Hence who pervades our materialistic body in the form of heat and the Sun in the form of light and heat is ahaḥ (ಅಹಃ).
saṃvatsara means year in Sanskrit. In one saṃvatsara there are 360 days and 360 nights. 100 saṃvatsaras is the life span of a Human being (36,000 days and 36,000 nights). A Human body is comprised of 72,000 channels and 360 bones and as-of-today modern science have discovered around 270 bones in human infants, which fuse to become 206 to 213 bones in the human adult. Hence when one prepares yagna kunda or Havan Kunda (the center place in a Yagna or Havan in which the fire is put and all the oblations/offerings are made), we use 360 bricks. Our Body which is comprised of 360 bones is also a yagna kunda or Havan Kunda. The one who pervades and control all the 72,000 channels and body made of 360 bones is saṃvatsara (ಸಂವತ್ಸರ).
The lexicon meaning of vyālaḥ means: intoxicated elephant, hissing snake, or an wild animal waiting for an opportunity to kill its prey. Do not be misled and scared hearing these meanings. God is vi (ವಿ) + ā (ಆ) + laa (ಲಾ). Means he is the destroyer of all defects. During Big Crunch, or Rip, or Freeze everything will be absorbed in Him. From an outlook the end of the Universe looks like a violent event. However, even during this violent event, God will lovingly accept everything, and gives living beings or life a rest, and during creation he brings forth life. This amazing energy God is vyālaḥ (ವ್ಯಾಲಃ).
Pratyaya (ಪ್ರತ್ಯಯ) means the embodiment of knowledge, one who knows everything and is present in everything (omniscient and omnipresent).
sarvadarśanaḥ (ಸರ್ವದರ್ಶನಃ)God is the eye for the Universer (Multi Verse). Everthing is visible to his eyes. You cannot hide anything from him. Who is extolled in the Vedas and Sastras, the GOD is sarvadarśanaḥ (ಸರ್ವದರ್ಶನಃ)
ajaḥ (ಅಜಃ) means one who is not born from anyone; however, he is born in everyone. Looks like opposite meanings, correct? Correct, God is not born from anyone. However, he is present as light in every womb and simultaneously is born in various forms. The womb and the sanctum sanctorum are called Garbha (ಗರ್ಭ). In the temple, when one invokes the omnipresent God in the idol, the God being invited will come. Similarly, God who is omnipresent will be present as energy/light in the womb and will be simultaneously born in various forms from numerous wombs. Hence, he is known as ajaḥ (ಅಜಃ).
One who comes when called with devotion, and the one who is the controller/ruler of all forces (Īśa, ಈಶ) is known as sarveśvaraḥ (ಸರ್ವೇಶ್ವರಃ).
All the Scriptures and knowledge (Sashtra and Veda) written or spoken in the entire universe explain the tenet of the one and only accomplished God. The one who is present in all Shastras and Vedas, the one who is present in all devotees, independent reality (Paramapurusha), and one who is present in one form (Roopa) is Siddha.
The one who bestows us with the four Purushartha (i.e., object of pursuit for living beings) - artha (prosperity and economic values), kama (sensual pleasures), dharma (righteousness and morality), and moksha (liberation from the cycle of reincarnation) is known as siddhiḥ (ಸಿದ್ಧಿಃ). The one who bestows success for our good action (satkarma) is siddhiḥ (ಸಿದ್ಧಿಃ).
He was present before existence and accepts everything, and he is responsible for everything and hence he is known as Sarvādi (ಸರ್ವಾದಿ) - The universe began as just a single point, then expanded and stretched to grow as large as it is right now—and it is still stretching! And finally, will collapse into a single point and that single point is known as Sarvādi (ಸರ್ವಾದಿ) and he is God.
He who accepts everything and is untouched by dereliction (ಚ್ಯುತಿ) and the one who is complete in his action and characteristics is acyutaḥ (ಅಚ್ಯುತಃ) – he creates, sustains, and destroys the multiverse, but is always complete in his duties and characteristics and is untouched by his action.
From a surface It looks like vṛṣākapi (ವೃಷಾಕಪಿ) = vṛṣā (ವೃಷ) + kapi (ಕಪಿ). vṛṣā (ವೃಷ) means one is responsible for rains (ಮಳೆ ಸೂರಿಸುವವನು) and kapi (ಕಪಿ), Kam + Payate, means one who makes us drink water. However, vṛṣā (ವೃಷಾ) means the essence of Dharma; one can also interpret this as the one who pours what we desire. Akapi (ಅಕಪಿ) means one who destroys sorrows. Hence, vṛṣākapi (ವೃಷಾಕಪಿ) means one who pours rain through Dharma (faith) what we desire, one who destroys sorrows, one who grants us perfect happiness, and he himself is in the state of complete bliss.
Our heart and mind have limitations and we cannot comprehend beyond this. It is impossible to comprehend God by our mind. Hence God is known as Ameyātmā (ಅಮೇಯಾತ್ಮಾ). Although it is impossible to fully comprehend God, he is subatomic and pervades in us. We can comprehend five elements earth, water, fire, air, sky, and the materials made of these five elements. However, God is different from these. We cannot comprehend the energy i.e., God that we are made of. We should try to comprehend God through our inner self (eyes), and not looking outside into the materialistic world.
Here the word yoga means relation or means or idea. We are in relation to the object surrounding us. God is present everywhere (he is omnipresent), however, he is not related to attached to anything. Good example of this is space, it is present everywhere, but is not related to or attached to anything. We can feel and sense earth/soil, water, fire, or air. However even though space is present everywhere, it is not attached to anything. God is also like space. Although he is present everywhere, he is not attached to anything. Hence the God is known as sarvayogavinissṛtaḥ (ಸರ್ವಯೋಗವಿನಿಸ್ಸೃತಃ).
In Practice, vasu means wealth or richness. Usually when one mentions wealth or richness, it reminds us of money. However, wealth and richness differ by person. Usually, one that gives us pleasure and happiness, we believe that to be wealth. Some perceive earth as wealth while others believe handsome man or beautiful women or money as wealth. What is real wealth? The one when distributed grows and leads us to goodness and makes us remembered for thousands and thousands of years that is real wealth. That is knowledge. Unnecessary knowledge is not real wealth. The one that uplifts us and the knowledge of that which uplifts us is real knowledge. Hence real wealth is the true knowledge of the God. That God who is the epitome of wealth and richness is vasu (ವಸು:)
Here Vasu means one who knows God. Mainly the deities and one who knows and realizes that God is present with oneself are known as Vasu. One with pure and noble heart and mind are also known as Vasu. Hence the one who graces his presence to the Vasu’s is known as vasumanāḥ (ವಸುಮನಾ:).
The word sat (ಸತ್) has various meanings. The creator, the sustainer, the destroyer etc. Also sat means knowledge-ignorance-relatedness-salvation. Hence satyaḥ (ಸತ್ಯಃ) means one who is the creator, sustainer, destroyer, the knowledge, one who instills ignorance, one who creates relationships and bestows salvation, the God is satyaḥ (ಸತ್ಯಃ).
God is Sarveshu Samana, means he treats everyone without discrimination. This multiverse is like a garden and God is the gardener. The souls are seeds! If these seeds are kept in the house, they do not bear fruits. When the seeds are planted and nurtured, according to their characteristics they will bear fruits. For the tamarind to be sour the gardener is not responsible. It is because of its characteristics (Jeeva Swaroopa). In the same way, in this multiverse we see various living beings exists due to their characteristics. God like a gardener nurtures the souls. Living beings will grow based on their inherent characteristics and karma (action). God does not punish the souls but trains them. God in all his incarnations, his actions are similar and there is no difference. God is perfect. However, his manifestation looks different. The energy or figure present in all beings is same but reflections are different. The energy or figure present in an ant or an elephant is the same. Such God is known as Samātmā (ಸಮಾತ್ಮಾ).
saṃmitaḥ (ಸಂಮಿತಃ) - asaṃmitaḥ (ಅಸಂಮಿತಃ)
As explained before God is Samātmā (ಸಮಾತ್ಮಾ), and this is known by all living beings who has pure knowledge. Hence, he is saṃmitaḥ (ಸಂಮಿತಃ). Although he is present equally everywhere, no one is equivalent to him. Hence, he is also asaṃmitaḥ (ಅಸಂಮಿತಃ).
The word samaḥ (ಸಮಃ) or equal is popularly used in all languages. However, many do not know that it is a characteristic of God. Usually everyone understands, equal means same. If we break this word, we get important abbreviations sa (ಸ) and ma (ಮ). sa (ಸ), means all, ma (ಮ) means knowledge or happiness. Hence samaḥ (ಸಮಃ) means all knowledge or happiness, pure knowledge, or bliss. Hence breaking the word gives superior meanings in Sanskrit. You may notice in invitation, it is addressed as sa-kutumba (ಸ-ಕುಟುಂಬ), sa-parivara (ಸ- ಪರಿವಾರ). Here sa, means including. Ma (ಮ) also means mother, voice, or promise. However, samaḥ (ಸಮಃ) means the one who is extolled in the Vedas, and all letters extol him. Such God without experience you cannot know him. Once you know God, we come to know that all intelligence explains God. Such God is always with his consort Goddess Lakshmi. Due to all these reasons, he is known as samaḥ (ಸಮಃ).
moghaḥ (ಮೋಘಃ) means waste, amoghaḥ (ಅಮೋಘಃ) means useful. Whose resolution is not wasted is amoghaḥ (ಅಮೋಘಃ). Gods’ resolution is never wasted. His resolution cannot be changed by anyone. Why did God create this Universe (multiverse)? What use does he have in creating the Universe (Multiverse)? This Universe (Multiverse) is moghaḥ (ಮೋಘಃ), waste to God. However, it is amoghaḥ (ಅಮೋಘಃ), useful to us. Since God has created this Universe (Multiverse) for the benefit of living beings he is known as amoghaḥ (ಅಮೋಘಃ).
In Amarakosha, puṃḍarīkākṣo (ಪುಂಡರೀಕಾಕ್ಷೋ) means eyes like white lotus. However, puṃḍarīkākṣo (ಪುಂಡರೀಕಾಕ್ಷೋ) means eyes like crimson red Lotus. God eyes is like blooming crimson red Lotus. Usually when we are happy, our eyes/pupil enlarge. However, God is the epitome of happiness. Out of four instruments held by God in four hands, one of them is Lotus. These four instruments (Disc, Conch, Mace, and Louts), signifies Dharma (right behavior and social order), Artha (wealth), Kama (good desire), and Moksha (salvation) respectively. Hence puṃḍarīka (ಪುಂಡರೀಕ) means one who gives salvation/moksha. From God’s navel the Universe (Multiverse) came into existence in the form of a Lotus. The one who in his heart has embedded the entire Universe (Multiverse) is known as Puṇḍarīkākṣa (ಪುಂಡರೀಕಾಕ್ಷ).
Before explaining this characteristic of the God, let us first look into a sloka from Bhagwat Gita
Yada yada hi dharmasya glanirbhavati bharata |
ಯದಾ ಯದಾ ಹಿ ಧರ್ಮಸ್ಯ ಗ್ಲಾನಿರ್ಭವತಿ ಭಾರತ|
ಅಭ್ಯುತ್ಥಾನಮ ಧರ್ಮಸ್ಯ ತದಾತ್ಮಾನಂ ಸೃಜಾಮ್ಯಹಂ||
Paritranaya sadhunang vinashay cha dushkritam |
ಪರಿತ್ರಾಣಾಯ ಸಾಧೂನಾಂ ವಿನಾಶಾಯ ಚ ದುಷ್ಕೃತಾಂ|
ಧರ್ಮಸಂಸ್ಥಾಪನಾರ್ಥಾಯ ಸಂಭವಾಮಿ ಯುಗೇ ಯುಗೇ||
The main meaning of this sloka is, When Dharma (right behavior and social order) is destroyed, to protect the righteous people with good behavior, and punish evil doers, and to establish order of right behavior and social order, I will incarnate again and again.
vṛṣa (ವೃಷ) means Dharma (right behavior and social order). vṛṣakarmā (ವೃಷಕರ್ಮಾ) means the actions performed by God to establish Dharma (right behavior and social order). God will incarnate again and again to establish Dharma and that is his Karma (act, action). The one who incarnates again and again to fulfill the desires of his devotees and to establish Dharma is known as vṛṣakarmā (ವೃಷಕರ್ಮಾ).
vṛṣākṛtiḥ (ವೃಷಾಕೃತಿಃ)As explained before, God will incarnate on Earth to protect the Dharma (right behavior and social order). While doing so he incarnates in various forms. Since he incarnates in various forms to protect Dharma he is known as vṛṣākṛtiḥ (ವೃಷಾಕೃತಿಃ). All the forms he incarnates will be as desired and wished by his devotees and hence he is vṛṣākṛtiḥ (ವೃಷಾಕೃತಿಃ).
From a surface It looks like rudra (ರುದ್ರ) means one who gives us sorrows and who will burn us. When writing the meaning of rudra suktha from the Vedas, Sāyaṇa (ಸಾಯಣ) wrote rudra (ರುದ್ರ) means fire – let us briefly see who is Sāyaṇa (ಸಾಯಣ) also called Sāyaṇācārya who was a Sanskrit Mimamsa scholar from the Vijayanagara Empire of South India, near modern day Bellary. An influential commentator on the Vedas, he flourished under King Bukka Raya I and his successor Harihara II. More than a hundred works are attributed to him, among which are commentaries on nearly all parts of the Vedas. He also wrote on several subjects like medicine, morality, music, and grammar. He had an elder brother named Madhava (sometimes identified as Vidyaranya), According to tradition, Vidyaranya helped establish the Vijayanagara Empire sometime in 1336, and served as a mentor and guide to three generations of kings who ruled over the Vijayanagara Empire.
Ok now to the characteristics rudraḥ (ರುದ್ರಃ), Out of five elements, when one touches fire, tears will roll from the eyes since we will be hurt. Hence Agni is also Rudra. Why does God give sorrows? God will give sorrows only to sinners. His main intention in giving sorrows is punishment. When we face difficulties, one should realize that there is God’s grace hidden behind these difficulties (karunya). If we break the word rudra (ರುದ್ರ) = ruk (ರುಕ್) + draa (ದ್ರಾ); here ruk (ರುಕ್) means diseases, and draa (ದ್ರಾ) means one who destroys or helps us escape. Hence rudra (ರುದ್ರ) means destroyer of diseases. This word can also be broken as rut (ರುತ್) + dra (ದ್ರಾ). Here rut (ರುತ್) means sorrows and draa (ದ್ರಾ) means one who destroys or helps us escape. Hence rudra (ರುದ್ರ) also means destroyer of sorrows.
The purusha suktha extol God as sahasra’śīrṣā puru’ṣaḥ | sahasrākṣaḥ sahasra’pāt | (ಸಹಸ್ರ’ಶೀರ್ಷಾ ಪುರು’ಷಃ | ಸಹಸ್ರಾಕ್ಷಃ ಸಹಸ್ರ’ಪಾತ್ |. Here Bahuśirā (ಬಹುಶಿರಾ) means one with thousands of heads. Even in Bhagwad Gita during Vishwa Darshana, we hear this. As explained before, God is present as energy in all living beings, hence he is Bahuśirā (ಬಹುಶಿರಾ).
Since head (ತಲೆ) shelters five organs or Shree - ಶ್ರೀ (eyes, ears, voice, nose, and taste) it is called sirassu (ಸಿರಸ್ಸು). Since God shelters all organs and thousands of heads, he is known as Bahuśirā (ಬಹುಶಿರಾ).
In sanskrit Yōniḥ (ಯೋನಿಃ) means one who is responsible. The one who is reponsible for the entire universe (multi-verse) and the mother/father is known as viśvayoniḥ (ವಿಶ್ವಯೋನಿಃ).
Śravas'su (ಶ್ರವಸ್ಸು) means fame, God is famous (Puṇyakirti, ಪುಣ್ಯ ಕೀರ್ತಿ), The one who is famous helps good souls to be famous. Just by singing and remembering glories of his characteristics (like Vishnusahasranama), we become pure and famous. Hence the one who is pure and famous and makes us pure and famous is known as śuciśravāḥ (ಶುಚಿಶ್ರವಾಃ). God has various pure names and characterstics. There is unusal strength in all his characterstics. Hence Purandara Dasaru, sang, ನೀನ್ಯಾಕೋ ನಿನ್ನ ಹಂಗ್ಯಾಕೋ ನಿನ್ನ ನಾಮಾದ ಬಲವೊಂದಿದ್ದರೆ ಸಾಕೊ (Neenyako ninna hungyaako ninna nAmada bala ondiddarey saako_ i.e. There is no need of you or your obligation, The strength of your name alone is sufficient.
when one hear amṛtaḥ (ಅಮೃತಃ), we think about elixir (a liquid that would supposedly make people able to go on living forever). However, in Sanskrit, birth is called death, means one day everyone is going to die. There are four types of death.
1. Loss of form – e.g., when a clay pot breaks, it loses its form and becomes part of earth
2. Loss of materialistic body – e.g., Once we lose life, our materialistic body is lost
3. Sorrow is also a form of death
4. Imperfection in death
However, God is untouched by these four types of death. Hence, he is elixir (amṛtaḥ, ಅಮೃತಃ). According to Upanishads, God has three positions. elixir (amṛtaḥ, ಅಮೃತಃ), safety, and fearlessness. The lifespan of deities are long. Lord Hanuman (Vayu) and Brahmas lifespan is thirce that of deities. The husband of Goddess Lakshmi, who has granted long lifespan to Lord Hanuman (Vayu), Lord Brahma, and Deities is amṛtaḥ (ಅಮೃತಃ).
śāśvataḥ sthāṇur (ಶಾಶ್ವತಃ ಸ್ಥಾಣು)
śāśvataḥ (ಶಾಶ್ವತಃ) means one who does not undergo change. sthāṇu (ಸ್ಥಾಣು) means position. We undergo change in our form like, childhood, youth, adult, and oldage. However, although God in the form of energy has filled every matter and space, he does not have a form. He does not undergo change in form and position he is omnipresent.
The one who uplifts accomplished souls to salvation is known as Varāroho (ವರಾರೋಹ). Varam-Arohati, means the one who uplifts souls to salvation based on the level of accomplishments. Brahma due to his accomplishment is uplifted to Satyaloka by God (satya meaning truth, loka meaning world, hence meaning the world of truth), Indra due to his accomplishment is uplifted to Devaloka by God (The deva lokas are usually described as places of eternal light and goodness, like Heaven). The God along with Goddess Lakshmi, reside in Nitya Loka and is Varāroho (ವರಾರೋಹ).
Any subject to think and know in-depth is tapassu (ತಪಸ್ಸು). Everyone’s development are fruits of thinking and knowing in-depth. The costume one wears is not important but to know the subject is important. One winning anger and bad desires and knowing a subject in-depth is tapassu (ತಪಸ್ಸು). Usually, winning desire is easy bit not anger. The reason one gets angry is when we are afraid that we will lose what we desire. Great sages could not win anger, for example Vishwamitra. After coming out of desire for Menaka, sage Vishwamitra undergoes penance, and the nRambha tries to divert Vishawamitra from the penance. Again, Vishwamitra gets angry on Rambha and curses her to be turned into stone. Here even after winning desire, we see that sage Vishwamitra loses to anger. We have a great example about how to meditate on God. The sons of Dharma and Moorthy, Nara and Narayana, gives a great example. When Tilotame came to spoil the meditation of Nara and Narayana, they welcome Tilotama with reverence and they created Uvarshi, and gifts Uravashi to Lord Indra. When we give up desires and anger and through meditation when we realize God, such ‘Parama Brahma’ means Sree Tatva, Goddess Lakshmi who is always in the state of Salvation and ‘Parama Maha Brahma’ means Narayana is mahātapāḥ (ಮಹಾತಪಾಃ). The force and energy behind meditation is Lord Shiva (Hara). The Hari and Hara energies are like cream in milk. Shiva energy originated from God’s heart. Such a energy and one who is meditated by giving away desire and anger is mahātapāḥ (ಮಹಾತಪಾಃ).
|| ಸರ್ವಪ್ರಹರಣಾಯುಧೋಂ ನಮಃ ಇತಿ ||
|| ಸರ್ವಪ್ರಹರಣಾಯುಧೋಂ ನಮಃ ಇತಿ ||
ಫಲಶ್ರುತಿಃ (22 ಸ್ಲೋಕ)
ಇತಿ ಶ್ರೀಮನ್ಮಹಾಭಾರತೇ ಅನುಶಾಸನಪರ್ವಣಿ ಶ್ರೀವಿಷ್ಣುಸಹಸ್ರನಾಮ ಸ್ತೋತ್ರಂ ಸಂಪೂರ್ಣಮ್.
|| ಶ್ರೀ ಕೃಷ್ಣಾರ್ಪಣ ಮಸ್ತು||
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